Return to Proposal Finder FY 2000 Proposal 20052

Proposal Table of Contents

Additional Documents

Section 1. General Administrative information
Section 2. Past accomplishments
Section 3. Relationships to other projects
Section 4. Objectives, tasks and schedules
Section 5. Budget
Section 6. References
Section 7. Abstract

Reviews and Recommendations
Title Type File Size File Date

Section 1. General Administrative Information

Title of Project Proposal Strategies to Limit Disease Effects on Estuarine Survival
BPA Project Proposal Number 20052
Business name of agency, institution,
or organization requesting funding
Oregon State University, National Marine Fisheries Service
Business acronym (if appropriate) OSU/NMFS

Proposal contact person or principal investigator

Name Jerri L. Bartholomew
Mailing Address Dept. of Microbiology, Nash Hall 220, OSU
City, State, Zip Corvallis, OR 97331-3804
Phone 5417371856
Fax 5417370496
Manager of program authorizing this project
Review Cycle FY 2000
Province Mainstem/Systemwide
Subbasin Systemwide
Short Description Determine the impact of pathogens on fish survival in the estuary and examine fish rearing, release, and treatment strategies for decreasing pathogen effects.
Target Species Spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha)

Project Location

[No information]

Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs)

Sponsor-Reported Relevant RPAs

Sponsor listed no RPAs for this project proposal

Relevant RPAs based upon NMFS & BPA Review

NMFS and BPA did not associate any reasonable and prudent alternatives with this project proposal

NPPC Program Measure Number(s) which this project addresses: 7.2 Improve Existing Hatchery Production (7.2D.4 - Improve Fish Health), 7.4H Reintroduction of Anadromous Fish in the Upper Cowlitz River Basin,
FWS/NMFS Biological Opinion Number(s) which this project addresses:
Other Planning Document References Consideration of Ocean Conditions in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

CBFWA-Generated Information

Database Administrator notes on the history of this proposal form: None
Type of Project (assigned by CBFWA Analysts): anadromous

Section 2. Past Accomplishments

n/a or no information

Section 3. Relationships to Other Projects

Project ID Title Description Umbrella
9063 Ocean survival of salmonids relative to migrational timing, fish health.. Our proposed study in concert with this ongoing project will provide for a comprehensive evaluation of the influence of pathogens on salmonid health and survival as they migrate from their freshwater to ocean environments. No
9102800 Monitoring smolt migration of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmo By collecting fish in the estuary, this project will further the monitoring program by providing information on estuarine survival of chinook salmon. No
9801001 Grande Ronde Basin spring chinook salmon captive broodstock program Research on a vaccine for BKD and immunostimulant effects may provide therateutants necessary for maintaining health of captive broodstock. No
9600600 PATH Provides critical and empirical data for modeling survival in PATH No

Section 4. Objectives, Tasks and Schedules

Objectives and Tasks

Objective Task
1. Prevalence of pathogens in outmigrants prior to entering and as they leave the estuary a. Fish sampling
1. b. Determine pathogen prevalence
1. c. Analysis of data
2. Specific pathogen studies to determine the effects of salt water on disease progress a. Determine the effects of different stages of infection by EIBSV on salt water adaptation
2. b. Determine the effects of different levels of C. shasta infection on survival of chinook salmon in salt water
2. c. Determine the effect of BKD infection and stage of smoltification on salt water adaptation
3. Evaluation of a BKD vaccine and immunostimulants for decreasing pathogen effects in the estuary a. Efficacy of a vaccine against Renibacterium salmoninarum
3. b. Efficacy of B-glucans for enhancing the immune response against EIBSV and Ceratomyxa shasta

Objective Schedules and Costs

Objective Start Date End Date Measurable Biological Objectives Milestone FY 2000 Cost %
1 10/01/99 09/01/02 Prevalence of specific pathogens in chinook salmon entering and leaving the estuary. x 45.0%
2 10/01/99 05/01/01 Data on pathogen impact in estuary relative to fresh water, development of management strategies x 55.0%
3 10/01/00 09/01/02 Determine efficacy of BKD vaccine and immunostimulants x 0.0%

Section 5. Estimated Budget Summary

Itemized Budget

Item Note FY 2000 Cost
Personnel Bartholomew $12,172; Bootland $12,540; Technicians (2) $56,000 GRA $12,996; hourly $3,200 $ 96,908
Fringe @41% to 51% $ 38,290
Supplies PCR reagents, tissue culture, ELISA kits, bacteriological media, supplies. $ 18,000
Operating tank charges $ 4,776
Travel project-related travel and travel to 1 national meeting per year for each OSU PI $ 2,500
Indirect @43% $ 79,754
Other tuition $ 6,896
Subcontractor NMFS - Arkoosh and Jacobson (see itemized budget_ $ 87,054
Total Itemized Budget $334,178

Total estimated budget

Total FY 2000 project cost $334,178
Amount anticipated from previously committed BPA Funds $ 0
Total FY 2000 budget request $334,178
FY 2000 forecast from 1999 $ 0
% change from forecast 0.0%

Reason for change in estimated budget

Not applicable

Reason for change in scope

Not applicable

Cost Sharing

Organization Item or service provided Amount Cash or In-Kind
NMFS salaries (1 month plus benefits for all project personnel) $ 19,527 unknown


Outyear Budget Totals

2001 2002
All Phases $343,863 $355,445
Total Outyear Budgets $343,863 $355,445

Other Budget Explanation

Not applicable

Section 6. References

Reference Watershed?
Arkoosh, M. R., E. Clemons, A. N, Kagley, R. Olson, P. Reno, E. Casillas and J. E. Stein. 1998. Effect of pollution on fish diseases: Potential impacts on salmonid populations. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 10:182-190. No
Banner, C.R., Long, J.J., Fryer, J.L, Rohovec, J.S. 1986. Occurrence of salmonid fish infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum in the Pacific Ocean. J. Fish Dis. 9: 273-275. No
Bartholomew, J. L., J. L. Fryer and J. S. Rohovec. 1992. Impact of the myxosporean parasite, Ceratomyxa shasta, on survival of migrating Columbia River basin salmonids. In: Proc. 19th US. - Japan meeting on Aquaculture ISE, Japan pp 33-4 1. No
Bootland, L.M., P. Dobos and R.M.W. Stevenson. 1995. Efficacy of immunization of adult brook trout in preventing the IPNV carrier state and vertical transmission. J. Fish Dis. 18: 449-458. No
Brusland, L., V. Watral, J. Rohovec and P. Reno. 1994. Purification of the causative agent of erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in salmonids. Fish Health Section Newsletter, 22:14-15. No
Clarke, W. C., 1982, Evaluation of the seawater challenge test as an index of marine survival. Aquaculture, 28:177-183. No
Daly, J.G., A.R. Moore and G. Olivier. 1995. A colorimetric assay for the quantification of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) lymphocyte mitogenesis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 5: 265-273. No
Elliott, D. G., R. J. Pascho, L. M. Jackson, G. M. Matthews, J. R. Harmon. 1997. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 9:114-126. No
Evelyn, T.P.T., J. E. Ketcheson, L. Prosperi-Porta. 1988. Trials with antibacterial kidney disease vaccines in two species of Pacific salmon. In: Conf. Handbook. Internat. Fish Health. Conf., Vancouver, B.C., Fish Health Section, Am. Fish. Soc., WA No
Fryer, J.L. and J. E. Sanders. 1981. Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fish. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 35:273-298. No
Gulland, F.M.D. The impact of infections diseases on wild animal populations – A review. In Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Grenfeel, B.T. and A.P.Dobson (eds), Cambridge University Press, New York, p 20-51. No
Haner, P.V., J.C. Faler, R.M. Schrock, D.W. Rondorf and A.G. Maule. 1995. Skin reflectance as a nonlethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 15:814-822. No
Hardie, L.J., T.C. Fletcher and C.J. Secombes.1994. Effect of temperature on macrophage activation and the production of macrophage activating factor by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leucocytes. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 18: 57-66. No
Kaattari, S.L., P. Turaga, G.D. Weins. 1989. Development of a vaccine for bacterial kidney disease in salmon. Final Report, August 1989. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR. 310 p. No
Magnusson, H.B., O.H. Fridjonsson, O.S. Andresson, E. Benediktsdottir, S. Gudmndsdottir and Anderson. 1994. Rs, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detection by reverse transription-PCR. J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 60: 4580-4 No
Moles, A. 1997. Effect of bacterial kidney disease on saltwater adaptation of coho salmon smolts. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 9:230-233. No
Munro, A.L.S., D.W. Bruno. 1988. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.) Fish Vaccination. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp. 124-134. No
NRC (National Research Council) 1996. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Committee on Protection and Management of Northwest Salmonids, Bd. Env. Studies and Tox., Comm. Life Sci., 452 pp. Natn'l Acad. Press. Washington D. C. No
NWPPC. 1997. Consideration of Ocean Conditions in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. May 29, 1997. (Internet access). No
Palenzuela, O., G. Trobridge and J. L. Bartholomew. Development of a polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay for Ceratomyxa shasta, a myxosporean parasite of salmonid fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. In Press. No
Pascho, R. J., D. G. Elliot and S. Achord. 1993. Monitoring of the in-river migration of smolts from two groups of spring chinook salmon with different profiles of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection. Aquacult. Fish Manage. 24:163-169. No
Pearcy, W. G. 1992. Ocean ecology of north Pacific salmonids. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 179 pp. No
Piacentini, S. C., J. S. Rohovec and J. L. Fryer. 1989. Epizootiology of erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 1:173-179. No
Piganelli, J.D. 1994. Ph.D. Thesis: Development of enteric protected vaccines for aquaculture. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. No
PNFHPC. 1994. PNFHPC survey to rank the importance of selected fish diseases and research approaches that might be taken to reduce their impact. Final report. Feb. 1994. No
Ratliff, D. E. 1981. Ceratomyxa shasta: Epizootiology in chinook salmon of central Oregon. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 110:507-513. No
J. E. Sanders, J. J. Long, C. K. Arakawa, J. L. Bartholomew and J. S. Rohovec. 1992. Prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum among downstream-migrating Columbia River salmonids. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 4:72-75. No

Section 7. Abstract


Among the critical uncertainties in the life cycle of hatchery salmon are the factors affecting their survival in the estuary. The numerous pathogens and diseases affecting salmonids in hatcheries and during the freshwater life cycle phase are well understood. However, there is little known about the impact of pathogens on the health and survival of fish during the transition to the saltwater phase of their life cycle. Pathogens of special concern in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are the virus which causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS); Ceratomyxa shasta, a parasite enzootic throughout much of the CRB, and the ubiquitous Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD). We hypothesize that the final stress of migrating into the estuary may result in fish mortality even if pathogen levels were low at release. There are multiple strategies which could be implemented in hatcheries to decrease the effects of pathogens. We propose to assess whether the above three pathogens impact fish populations by 1) monitoring pathogen prevalence in smolts migrating through the Columbia River estuary and 2) examining in laboratory experiments if pathogens alter fish survival during adaptation to salt water. We also propose to test methods (e.g. immunostimulants and vaccines) which will potentially help hatchery managers to increase survival of fish after release.

Reviews and Recommendations

This information was not provided on the original proposals, but was generated during the review process.

This project has not yet been reviewed

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