Return to Proposal Finder FY 2000 Proposal 20080

Proposal Table of Contents

Additional Documents

Section 1. General Administrative information
Section 2. Past accomplishments
Section 3. Relationships to other projects
Section 4. Objectives, tasks and schedules
Section 5. Budget
Section 6. References
Section 7. Abstract

Reviews and Recommendations
Title Type File Size File Date

Section 1. General Administrative Information

Title of Project Proposal Evaluate a Modified Feeding Strategy to Reduce Residualism and Promote Smolting of Dworshak Juvenile Steelhead in the Clearwater River in Idaho
BPA Project Proposal Number 20080
Business name of agency, institution,
or organization requesting funding
Idaho Fishery Resource Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Business acronym (if appropriate) IFRO/USFWS

Proposal contact person or principal investigator

Name Ray N. Jones
Mailing Address P.O. Box 18
City, State, Zip Ahsahka, ID 83521
Phone 2084767242
Fax 2084767228
Manager of program authorizing this project
Review Cycle FY 2000
Province Mountain Snake
Subbasin Clearwater
Short Description Reduce residualism and improve smoltification of steelhead using a modified feeding strategy designed to stimulate smoltification, reduce residualism, increase emigration success, reduce interactions with wild fish, and increase adult returns.
Target Species Summer Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Project Location

[No information]

Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs)

Sponsor-Reported Relevant RPAs

Sponsor listed no RPAs for this project proposal

Relevant RPAs based upon NMFS & BPA Review

NMFS and BPA did not associate any reasonable and prudent alternatives with this project proposal

NPPC Program Measure Number(s) which this project addresses: 5.7A.4, 5.7B.17, 7.2D.1, and 7.2D.3
FWS/NMFS Biological Opinion Number(s) which this project addresses: Endangered Species Act Section 7 Biological Opinion on 1995-1998 Hatchery Operations in the Columbia River Basin, Consultation Number 383, April 5, 1995. Section VIII, Number 1 (page 66).
Other Planning Document References This proposal addresses the following action items in the National Marine Fisheries Services recommendations in their Proposed Plan for Snake River Salmon: Task 4.4.a, develop an index of measures to evaluate smolt quality and improve adult returns”; Task 4.4.c, “ and carry out production-scale experiments at appropriate Columbia River Basin hatcheries to test individual release strategies and evaluate smolt quality indices believed to improve smolt quality”, and Task 4.5.b, “...release steelhead smolts that are 170 to 220 mm in total length”. This type of research has also been called for by IHOT and the Artificial Production Review.

CBFWA-Generated Information

Database Administrator notes on the history of this proposal form: None
Type of Project (assigned by CBFWA Analysts): anadromous

Section 2. Past Accomplishments

Year Accomplishment
Completed unfunded pilot study*

Section 3. Relationships to Other Projects

Project ID Title Description Umbrella
Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho Not dependent but very closely related in that both projects are attempting to address the issue of residualism of juvenile steelhead at Dworshak NFH. Fish released by this project can contribute additional data to Project 99-018-00. Collections of our No
20542 Biological Monitoring of Columbia Basin Salmonids Yes
8740100 Assessment of Smolt Condition: Biological and Environmental Interactions Yes

Section 4. Objectives, Tasks and Schedules

Objectives and Tasks

Objective Task
1. Increase the proportion of juvenile steelhead that exhibit characteristics of smoltification prior to release from the hatchery. 1. Manipulate growth rate of selected groups of steelhead using a feeding schedule designed to decrease growth over winter and increase growth during spring.
1. 1. Calculate monthly growth rates for treatment and control groups and determine the relationship between growth rate and smoltification.
1. 1. Evaluate smolt condition of steelhead on altered feeding schedule during rearing and at release: monitor condition factor, mucus lysozyme, gill sodium, potassium ATPase, skin reflectance, and total body fat.
1. 1. Prepare annual progress reports that summarize data and prepare a final project report summarizing results and findings.
2. Increase the proportion of steelhead smolts that successfully emigrate to downriver dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. 2. Mark representative groups of treatment and control steelhead smolts with PIT tags prior to release.
2. 2. Interrogate PIT-tagged emigrants using the PTAGIS database system .
2. 2. Analyze relationship between modified feeding strategy, physiological development, and emigration success.
2. 2. Prepare annual progress reports that summarize data and prepare a final project report summarizing results and findings.
3. Increase the proportion of steelhead smolts that successfully rear during extended seawater rearing . 3. Transfer individuals from treatment and control groups to seawater rearing tanks to monitor extended seawater survival.
3. 3. Monitor health and smolt condition of fish held in seawater using gill ATPase, total body fat analysis, and necropsy-based fish health assessment.
3. 3. Prepare annual progress reports that summarize data and prepare a final project report summarizing results and findings.
4. Increase the proportion of smolts that survive to return as adults to the hatchery. 4. Mark 20,000 fish in each treatment and control pond with coded-wire tags prior to release.
4. 4. Scan all returning adult steelhead at the hatchery for coded-wire tags for tag extraction and decoding.
4. 4. Analyze coded-wire tag returns for statistical differences between treatment and control groups.
4. 4. Prepare annual progress reports that summarize data and prepare a final project report summarizing results and findings.

Objective Schedules and Costs

Objective Start Date End Date Measurable Biological Objectives Milestone FY 2000 Cost %
1 10/01/99 10/01/03 40.0%
2 10/01/99 10/01/03 30.0%
3 10/01/99 10/01/03 10.0%
4 05/01/02 10/01/07 20.0%

Section 5. Estimated Budget Summary

Itemized Budget

Item Note FY 2000 Cost
Personnel $ 38,800
Fringe $ 7,900
Supplies Field equipment, lab and office supplies $ 10,000
Operating Coded-wire and PIT tagging $ 16,000
Capital Laptop computer and software, digital camera $ 3,500
PIT tags 4000 $ 11,600
Travel $ 7,500
Indirect $ 21,000
Subcontractor USGS-BRD Salaries, Benefits, etc. $ 51,750
Total Itemized Budget $168,050

Total estimated budget

Total FY 2000 project cost $168,050
Amount anticipated from previously committed BPA Funds $ 0
Total FY 2000 budget request $168,050
FY 2000 forecast from 1999 $ 0
% change from forecast 0.0%

Reason for change in estimated budget

Not applicable

Reason for change in scope

Not applicable

Cost Sharing

Not applicable

Outyear Budget Totals

2001 2002 2003 2004
All Phases $168,050 $168,050 $138,000 $138,000
Total Outyear Budgets $168,050 $168,050 $138,000 $138,000

Other Budget Explanation

Schedule Constraints: Flow conditions in the spring may have an effect on PIT-tag detection rates at Lower Snake and Columbia River dams.

Section 6. References

Reference Watershed?
Abbott, J.C. and L.M. Dill. 1989 The relative growth of dominant and subordinate juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) fed equal rations. Behavior 108(2):104111. No
Ban, M., H. Hasegawa, and K. Abe. 1995. Relationship between feeding rate and physiological quality in hatcheryreared juvenile chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta. Sci. Rep. Hokkaido Salm. Hatch. Hokkaido Sake Masu Fukajo Kenpo 49:2733. No
Bigelow, P.E. 1995. Migration to Lower Granite Dam of Dworshak National Fish Hatchery Steelhead. Pages 42-58 in Interactions of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Clearwater River of Idaho. United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Nez Perce Tribe. No
Bigelow, P.E. 1997. Emigration of Dworshak National Fish Hatchery steelhead. Pages III-1 to III-22 in Interactions of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Clearwater River of Idaho. United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Nez Perce Tribe. United St No
Cannamela, D.A. 1992. Potential impacts of releases of hatchery steelhead trout "smolts" on wild and natural juvenile chinook and sockeye salmon. A white paper. Copies available from Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 36p. No
Cannamela, D.A. 1993. Hatchery steelhead smolt predation of wild and natural juvenile chinook salmon fry in the upper Salmon River, Idaho. A white paper. Copies available from Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 23p. No
Conte, F.P. and H.H. Wagner. 1965. Development of osmotic and ionic regulation in juvenile steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri. Comp. Biochem. Physio. 14:603620. No
Dill, L.M. 1983. Adaptive flexibility in the foraging behavior of fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40(4):398408. No
Ewing, R.D., H.J. Pribble, S.L. Johnson, C.A. Fustish, J. Diamond, and J.A. Lichatowich. 1980. Influence of size, growth rate, and photoperiod on cyclic changes in gill (Na+K)ATPase activity in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal No
Farmer, G.J., D. Ashfield, and T.R. Goff. 1983. A feeding guide for juvenile Atlantic salmon. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 1718:20 pp. No
Folmar, LC. and W.W. Dickhoff. 1980. The parrsmolt transformation (smoltification) and seawater adaptation in salmonids. Aquaculture 21:137. No
Haner, P.V., J.C. Faler, R.M. Schrock, D.W. Rondorf, and A.G. Maule. 1995. Skin reflectance as a nonlethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15:814822. No
Hansen, L.P., W.C. Clarke, R.L. Saunders, and J.E. Thorpe. 1989. Salmonid Smoltification III. Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Directorate for Nature Management. Aquaculture 82(14). No
Klontz, G.W., M.G. Maskill, and H. Kaiser. 1991. Effects of reduced continuous versus intermittent feeding of steelhead. The Progressive Fish Culturist 53:229235. No
Litwack, G. 1955. Photometric determination of lysozyme activity. Proceedings of the Societyof Experimental Biology and Medicine 89:401-403. No
McCormick, S.D., R.I. Saunders, and A.D. MacIntyre. 1989. The effect of salinity and ration level on growth rate and conversion efficiency of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Aquaculture 82(14):173180. No
McMichael, G.A., C.C. Sharpe, and T.N. Pearsons. 1997. Effects of residual hatchery reared steelhead on growth of wild rainbow trout and spring chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:230239. No
Muona, M. and A. Soivio. 1992. Changes in plasma lysozyme and blood leucocyte levels of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) during parr-smolt transformation. Aquaculture 106:75-87. No
Partridge, F.E. 1985. Effects of steelhead smolt size on residualism and adult return rates. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lower Snake River Compensation Plan. Contract No. 141600183605. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. No
Partridge, F.E. 1986. Effects of steelhead smolt size on residualism and adult return rates. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lower Snake River Compensation Plan. Contract No. 141600183605. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. No
Peven, C.M., R.R. Whitney, and K.R. Williams. 1994. Age and length of steelhead smolts from the midColumbia River basin, Washington. N. Am. J. Fish. Management 14(1):7786. No
Schrock, R.M. 1994. Quantifying nonspecific disease response in adult and juvenile salmon. Proceedings of the International Fish Physiology Symposium, Vancouver, Canada. June 1994:476480. No
Schrock, R.M., J.W. Beeman, D.W. Rondorf, and P.V. Haner. 1994. A microassay for gill sodium, potassiumactivated ATPase in juvenile Pacific salmonids. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 123:223229. No
Shrimpton, J.M., N.J. Bernier, G.K. Iwama, and D.J. Randall. 1994. Differences in measurements of smolt development between wild and hatcheryreared juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) before and after saltwater exposure. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci No
Smith, R.R. 1987. Methods of controlling growth of steelhead. Progressive Fish Culturist 49(4):248252. No
Symons, P.E. 1970. The possible role of social and territorial behavior of Atlantic salmon parr in the production of smolts. Technical Report No. 2. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 25p. No
Thorpe, J.E., N.B. Metcalfe, and F.A. Huntingford. 1992. Behavioural influences on life-history variation in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Environmental Biology of Fishes 33:331-340. No
Viola, A.E. and M.L. Schuck. 1995. A method to reduce the abundance of residual hatchery steelhead in rivers. N. Am. J. Fish Mgt. 15(2):488493. No
Whitesel, T. A. 1991. Performance of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) introduced into a stream: smolt development and thyroid hormones. Diss. Abst. Int. Pt. BSci. and Eng 51(11):156pp. No
Zaporozhec, O.M. and G.V. Zaporozhec. 1993. Preparation of hatcheryreared chum fry for life at sea: osmoregulatory dynamics. Fish. Oceanogr. 2 (2):9196. No

Section 7. Abstract


Reducing residualism for summer steelhead at Dworshak NFH will be addressed in a production level research project conducted jointly by the USFWS and the USGS-BRD. The project addresses key components of the 1994 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife plan with regard to steelhead populations, specifically measures 5.7A.4, 5.7B.17, 7.2D.1, and 7.2D.3. . The project is intended to evaluate a modified feeding strategy designed to stimulate smoltification over a wider range of fish sizes, thereby reducing residualism and precocity. Manipulation of growth rates and smolt physiology will be effected by changing the feeding rate on a seasonal basis. The modified feeding schedule will be evaluated at the production level by monitoring growth, survival, emigration success, and adult returns of treatment groups compared to regular production control groups. Physiological development, smolt condition and health will be monitored during rearing, emigration, and extended seawater holding. Improved physiological condition, enhanced smoltification, increased emigration success, prolonged seawater survival, and increased adult returns will determine the effectiveness of the experimental treatment.

Reviews and Recommendations

This information was not provided on the original proposals, but was generated during the review process.

This project has not yet been reviewed

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