Return to Proposal Finder FY 2000 Proposal 198740100

Proposal Table of Contents

Additional Documents

Section 1. General Administrative information
Section 2. Past accomplishments
Section 3. Relationships to other projects
Section 4. Objectives, tasks and schedules
Section 5. Budget
Section 6. References
Section 7. Abstract

Reviews and Recommendations
Title Type File Size File Date

Section 1. General Administrative Information

Title of Project Proposal Assessment of Smolt Condition: Biological and Environmental Interactions
BPA Project Proposal Number 198740100
Business name of agency, institution,
or organization requesting funding
U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Columbia River Research Laboratory
Business acronym (if appropriate) USGS

Proposal contact person or principal investigator

Name R. M. Schrock, A. G. Maule
Mailing Address 5501A Cook-Underwood Rd.
City, State, Zip Cook, WA 98605
Phone 5095382299 231
Fax 5095382843
Manager of program authorizing this project
Review Cycle FY 2000
Province Mainstem/Systemwide
Subbasin Systemwide
Short Description Evaluate the biology of wild and hatchery salmonids by determining the effects of rearing and river conditions on smolt quality; assist hatchery managers in producing fish with wild-like characteristics and thereby increase smolt-to-adult returns.
Target Species salmonids species: Oncorhynchus spp.

Project Location

[No information]

Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs)

Sponsor-Reported Relevant RPAs

Sponsor listed no RPAs for this project proposal

Relevant RPAs based upon NMFS & BPA Review

NMFS and BPA did not associate any reasonable and prudent alternatives with this project proposal

NPPC Program Measure Number(s) which this project addresses: 4.2A, 5.0A, 5.7A.4, 5.7B.17, 5.8A.8, 5.9A.1, 7.2D.1, 7.2D.3
FWS/NMFS Biological Opinion Number(s) which this project addresses: NMFS Bio. Op. Section 7: Operations of the Columbia River Power System, Columbia River Management Plan, Smolt Monitoring Program, and Juvenile Fish Transport Program
Other Planning Document References Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon 2.1.d, 2.3.d, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, Columbia River Anadromous Fish Restoration Plan of the Nez Perce, Umatilla, Warm Springs, and Yakama Tribes

CBFWA-Generated Information

Database Administrator notes on the history of this proposal form: None
Type of Project (assigned by CBFWA Analysts): anadromous

Section 2. Past Accomplishments

Year Accomplishment
1998 Obj.1 & 2. hatchery evaluation in progress
1998 Obj. 3. results of lysozyme research reported
1998 Obj 4. provided technical assistance to 2 USFWS, 2 USGS, 1 COE, and 4 WDFW smolt monitoring projects
1998 Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis: Project Review 1987-1997
1998 Developed cooperative project with USFWS, Idaho Fishery Resource Office under Obj 4.
1998 Sponsor 20th Smolt Workshop in cooperation with WDFW, scheduled Feb 1-3, 1999 Olympia, Washington
1997 Hatchery rearing conditions survey completed for 10 hatcheries
1997 Smolt condition assessment technical assistance to 15 projects, including to 3 USFWS, 2 USGS, 2 COE, 4 WDFW
1997 Cooperative research with USFWS to determine effects of enhanced feeds on growth and disease resistance in chinook salmon
1996 Cooperative research with USFWS to enhance smolt performance with glucan feeds, continued monitoring for FPC
1995 Conducted cooperative research with USFWS, continued monitoring for FPC
1995 Conducted gas bubble monitoring of juvenile salmon at 6 dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, continued monitoring for FPC
1994 Sampling with NMFS Lower Granite Survival Study continued from 1993, continued monitoring for FPC

Section 3. Relationships to Other Projects

Project ID Title Description Umbrella
9102900 Supplementation and survival of fall chinook in Snake River smolt assessment technical assistance No
9801005 Pittsbugh Landing Creek portable acclimation release facility smolt assessment technical assistance No
USGS-Performance and stock productivity impacts of hatchery supplementation smolt assessment technical assistance No
USGS-COE Eval.of Collection, Transport, Passage of Outmigrating Salmon smolt assessment technical assistance No
WDFW-Cowlitz Falls Anadromous Fish Reintroduction Project smolt assessment technical assistance No
WDFW-Snake River Lab Acclimation and direct stream release of chinook smolt assessment technical assistance No
WDFW, Chelan PUD-Temperature, precocity, residualism in steelhead smolt assessment technical assistance No
WDFW-Survival differences in coho salmon under seminatural rearing smolt assessment technical assistance No
8740100 Assessment of Smolt Condition: Biological and Environmental Interactions. Yes
9082 Evaluate feeding strategies to reduce residualism in steelhead Yes
20542 Biological Monitoring of Columbia Basin Salmonids Yes

Section 4. Objectives, Tasks and Schedules

Objectives and Tasks

Objective Task
1. Investigate the effects of rearing and river conditions on the physiology and migration success of juvenile salmonids. a. Analyze hatchery stock rearing data to identify factors contributing to smolt-to-adult survival.
1. b. Work cooperatively with reference hatcheries to interpret, summarize, and report findings from individual hatchery analysis.
1. c. Develop cooperative sampling with regional managers for non-invasive monitoring of wild salmon populations.
1. d. Determine performance indicators for production, based on wild fish physiology monitoring.
2. Maintain a comprehensive database of juvenile salmonid performance and adult survival. a. Integrate hatchery and wild rearing and migration data, and adult returns with environmental data.
2. b. Analyze integrated smolt condition database for effects of rearing on smoltification, migration success, and adult returns.
3. Develop monitoring program to evaluate in-river migration performance of reference stocks comparing wild fish and hatchery fish reared under modifed conditions. a. Cooperate with basin hatchery managers to promote adaptive modifications at hatcheries and provide evaluations of migration success based on wild salmonid comparisons.
3. b. Assist in the determination of reference stocks for in-river biological monitoring.
4. Develop and evaluate indices of smolt condition. a. Determine use of mucus lysozyme activity as measure of smolt condition in juvenile salmonids.
4. b. Validate eye pigment ratio as non-invasive indicator of smolt condition, with correlation to gill ATPase.
5. Provide technical assistance to cooperating agencies and BPA- funded projects. a. Provide research and sampling design review, and laboratory analysis to cooperating agencies, for determination of the physiological status of salmon and steelhead.
5. b. Organize annual regional smolt workshop to facilitate information exchange among Columbia basin salmonid managers and agencies. Distribute smolt workshop proceedings.

Objective Schedules and Costs

Objective Start Date End Date Measurable Biological Objectives Milestone FY 2000 Cost %
1 04/01/00 03/01/01 correlations of smolt-to-adult returns with rearing, and river and ocean conditions 3/2005 25.0%
2 04/01/00 03/01/01 systemwide documentation of biological characteristics of smolts under varied conditions 3/2005 20.0%
3 04/01/00 03/01/01 provide biological evaluation of reference stocks during migration 3/2005 25.0%
4 04/01/00 03/01/05 allow biological monitoring under ESA restrictions 2/2005 20.0%
5 04/01/00 03/01/05 biological assessment of smolt condition for regional fish managers, annual exchange of biological information 2/2005 10.0%

Section 5. Estimated Budget Summary

Itemized Budget

Item Note FY 2000 Cost
Personnel 2 FT, 2 1/4T $107,272
Fringe $ 25,341
Supplies $ 5,000
Operating $ 0
Capital computer upgrade and software for database $ 3,500
Travel includes vehicle for 6 months $ 4,500
Indirect $ 53,433
Total Itemized Budget $199,046

Total estimated budget

Total FY 2000 project cost $199,046
Amount anticipated from previously committed BPA Funds $ 0
Total FY 2000 budget request $199,046
FY 2000 forecast from 1999 $ 0
% change from forecast 0.0%

Reason for change in estimated budget

Not applicable

Reason for change in scope

Not applicable

Cost Sharing

Organization Item or service provided Amount Cash or In-Kind
All technical assistance projects cover materials and labor for the assistance activities (figure based on 1997 & 1998). $ 10,000 unknown


Outyear Budget Totals

2001 2002 2003 2004
All Phases $206,000 $212,000 $218,000 $225,000
Total Outyear Budgets $206,000 $212,000 $218,000 $225,000

Other Budget Explanation

Schedule Constraints: Coordination of technical assistance activities within cooperative agency project schedules.

Section 6. References

Reference Watershed?
Adams, C. E., and J. E. Thorpe. 1989. Photoperiod and temperature effects on early development and reproductive investment in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 79:403-409. No
Alexander, G., R. Sweeting, and B. McKeown. 1994. The shift in visual pigment dominance in the retinae of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): an indicator of smolt status. Journal of Experimental Biology 195:185-197. No
Barton, B. A., C. B. Schreck, R. D. Ewing, A. R. Hemmingsen, and R. Patino. 1985. Changes in plasma cortisol during stress and smoltification in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. General and Comparative Endocrinology 59:468-471. No
Beatty, D. D. 1965. A study of the succession of visual pigments in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 44:429-455. No
Beeman, J. W., D. W. Rondorf, J. C. Faler, M. E. Free, and P. V. Haner. 1990. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual Report 1989 (Contract DE-AI79-97BP35245) to Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. No
Beeman, J. W., D. W. Rondorf, J. C. Faler, M. E. Free, P. V. Haner, S. T. Sauter, and D. A. Venditti. 1991. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual Report 1990 (Contract DE-A179-87BP35245) to Bonneville Power Administration. No
Beeman, J. W., D. W. Rondorf, and M. E. Tilson. 1994. Assessing smoltification of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using changes in body morphology. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:836-844. No
Beeman, J. W., D. W. Rondorf, M. E. Tilson, and D. A. Venditti. 1995. A nonlethal measure of smolt status of juvenile steelhead based on body morphology. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:764-769. No
Borgatti, A. R., A. Pagliari, and V. Ventrella. 1992. Gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase involvement and regulation during salmonid adaptation to salt water. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 102A:637-643. No
Carmichael, R. W. and R. T. Messmer. 1995. Status of supplementing chinook salmon natural production in the Imnaha River basin. In Uses and Effects of Cultured Fishes in Aquatic Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:284-291. No
Dickhoff, W. W., B. R. Beckman, D. A. Larsen, C. V. W. Mahnken, C. B. Schreck, C. Sharpe, and W. S. Zaugg. 1995. Quality assessment of hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon smolts in the Columbia River basin. In Uses and Effects of Cultured Fishes. No
Fevolden, S. E., T. Refstie, and K. H. Roed. 1991. Selection for high and low cortisol stress response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 95:53-65. No
Fevolden, S. E., T. Refstie, and K. H. Roed. 1992. Disease resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) selected for stress response. Aquaculture 104:19-29. No
Fevolden, S. E., K. H. Roed, and B. Gjerde. 1994. Genetic components of post-stress cortisol and lysozyme activity in Atlantic salmon; correlations to disease resistance. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 4(7):507-519. No
Folmar, L. C., and W. W. Dickhoff. 1981. Evaluation of some physiological parameters as predictive indices of smoltification. Aquaculture 23:309-324. No
Foote, C. J., W. C. Clarke, and J. Blackburn. 1991. Inhibition of smolting in precocious chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:1848-1852. No
Grinde, B. 1989. Lysozyme from rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, as an antibacterial agent against fish pathogens. Journal of Fish Diseases 12:95-104. No
Grinde, B., J. Jolles, and P. Jolles. 1988. Purification and characterization of two lysozymes from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). European Journal of Biochemistry 173:269-273. No
Haner, P. V., J. C. Faler, R. M. Schrock, D. W. Rondorf, and A. G. Maule. 1995. Skin reflectance as a nonlethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15:814-822. No
Heath, D. D., N. J. Bernier, J. W. Heath, and G. K. Iwama. 1993. Genetic, environmental, and interaction effects on growth and stress response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fry. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50(2):43 No
Hoar, W. S. 1988. The physiology of smolting salmonids. Pages 275-323. In W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall (eds), Fish Physiology Volume XI, Part B. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. No
Klontz, G. W., M. G. Maskill, and H. Kaiser. 1991. Effects of reduced continuous versus intermittent feeding of steelhead. Progressive Fish-Culturist 53:229-235. No
Maule, A. G., J. W. Beeman, R. M. Schrock, and P. V. Haner. 1994. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual Report 1991-1992 (Contract DE-A179-87BP35245) to Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. No
Maule, A. G., C. B. Schreck, and S. L. Kaattari. 1987. Changes in the immune system of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the parr-to-smolt transformation and after implantation of cortisol. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: No
McCormick, S. D., R. L. Saunders, and A. D. MacIntyre. 1989. Mitochondrial enzyme and Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and ion regulation during parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 6(4):231-241. No
Miller, W. H. 1990. Analysis of salmon and steelhead supplementation. Part 1, emphasis on unpublished reports and present programs; Part 2, synthesis of published literature; Part 3, concepts for a model to evaluate supplementation. USFWS report. No
Muir, W. D., A. E. Giorgi, C. C. Travis. 1994. Behavioral and physiological changes in yearling chinook salmon during hatchery residence and downstream migration. Aquaculture 127(1):69-82. No
Muir, W. D., W. S. Zaugg, S. McCutcheon, and J. G. Williams. 1992. Biological manipulation of migration rate: the use of advanced photoperiod to accelerate smoltification in yearling chinook salmon, 1990. Annual report 1990. NMFS/NOAA: 37pp. No
Roed, K. H., H. J. S. Larsen, R. D. Linder and T. Refstie. 1993. Genetic variation in lysozyme activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 109:237-244. No
Rondorf, D. W., J. W. Beeman, J. C. Faler, M. E. Free, and E. J. Wagner. 1989. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual Report 1988 (Contract No. DE-AI79-87BP35245) to Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. No
Schrock, R. M., J. W. Beeman, P. V. Haner, K. M. Hans, J. D. Hotchkiss, S. T. Sauter, S. P. Vanderkooi, W. L. Gale, P. A. Petrusso, and A. G. Maule. 1998. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis, project review 1987-1997. BPA report. No
Schrock, R. M., J. W. Beeman, D. W. Rondorf, and P. V. Haner. 1994. A microassay for gill sodium, potassium-activated ATPase in juvenile Pacific salmonids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123:223-229. No
Sharpe, C. S., C. B. Schreck, and W. W. Dickhoff. 1994. Smoltification strategies in wild spring chinook salmon: implications for aquaculture. In High Performance Fish: Proceedings of Inter. Fish Phys. Symposium, 16-21 July 1994. UBC, Vancouver, BC. No
Smith, R. R. 1987. Methods of controlling growth of steelhead. Progressive Fish-Culturist 49:248-252. No
Viola, A. E. and M. L. Schuck. 1995. A method to reduce the abundance of residual hatchery steelhead in rivers. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15(2):488-493. No
Wedemeyer, G. A., R. L. Saunders, and W. C. Clarke. 1980. Environmental factors affecting smoltification and early marine survival of anadromous salmonids. National Marine Fisheries Service Marine Fisheries Review 42:1-14. No
Zaugg, W. S. 1981a. Relationships between smolt indices and migration in controlled and natural environments. Pages 173-183. In E. L. Brannon and E. O. Salo (eds), Salmon and Trout Migratory Behavior Symposium. No
Zaugg, W. S. 1981b. Advanced photoperiod and water temperature effects on gill Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase activity and migration of juvenile steelhead (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:758-764. No
Zaugg, W. S. and B. R. Beckman. 1990. Saltwater-induced decreases in weight and length relative to seasonal gill Na+ -K+ ATPase changes in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): a test for seawater adaptability. Aquaculture 86: 19-23. No

Section 7. Abstract


Reviews and Recommendations

This information was not provided on the original proposals, but was generated during the review process.

This project has not yet been reviewed

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