Return to Proposal Finder FY 2000 Proposal 199105500

Proposal Table of Contents

Additional Documents

Section 1. General Administrative information
Section 2. Past accomplishments
Section 3. Relationships to other projects
Section 4. Objectives, tasks and schedules
Section 5. Budget
Section 6. References
Section 7. Abstract

Reviews and Recommendations
Title Type File Size File Date


Section 1. General Administrative Information

Title of Project Proposal N a T U R E S [Formerly Supplemental Fish Quality (Yakima)]
BPA Project Proposal Number 199105500
Business name of agency, institution,
or organization requesting funding
National Marine Fisheries Service
Business acronym (if appropriate) NMFS
 

Proposal contact person or principal investigator

Name Thomas A. Flagg
Mailing Address P.O. Box 130
City, State, Zip Manchester, WA 98353
Phone 2065534208
Fax 2068428364
E-mail T. Flagg@NOAA.GOV
 
Manager of program authorizing this project
 
Review Cycle FY 2000
Province Mainstem/Systemwide
Subbasin Systemwide
 
Short Description Develop and evaluate fish culture techniques (seminatural raceway habitat, predator avoidance training, exercise, live food diets, etc.) for a natural rearing enhancement system that increases the postrelease survival of artificially propogated salmon.
Target Species chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead trout


Project Location

[No information]


Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs)

Sponsor-Reported Relevant RPAs

Sponsor listed no RPAs for this project proposal

Relevant RPAs based upon NMFS & BPA Review

NMFS and BPA did not associate any reasonable and prudent alternatives with this project proposal


NPPC Program Measure Number(s) which this project addresses: 7.2D.1, 7.2D.2 and 7.2D.3
FWS/NMFS Biological Opinion Number(s) which this project addresses:
Other Planning Document References NMFS ESA Snake River Salmon Recovery Plan Section 4.4.c and 4.4.d


CBFWA-Generated Information

Database Administrator notes on the history of this proposal form: None
Type of Project (assigned by CBFWA Analysts): anadromous


Section 2. Past Accomplishments

Year Accomplishment
1992 Completed Literature Review.
1992 On a laboratory scale demonstrated that full term rearing of fall chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat increases instream postrelease survival.
1994 On a laboratory scale demonstrated that acclimation rearing of spring chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat increases instream postrelease survival.
1994 On a pilot scale demonstrated that full term rearing of fall chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat increases instream postrelease survival.
1997 Completed design and physical evaluation of seminatural raceway habitat using resin rock pavers for production scale raceways.
1998 On a production scale demonstrated that full term rearing of fall chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with resin rock paver substrate increases instream survival.
1995 Completed design and physical evaluation of automatic subsurface feed delivery system.
1995 On a pilot scale demonstrated that automatic subsurface feed delivery systems do not affect fall chinook salmon behavior.
1992 With laboratory trials demonstrated that live food supplemented diets improve fall chinook salmon foraging success.
1997 With field trials demonstrated live food diets improve fall chinook salmon foraging success.
1998 Completed design of an oval exercise system that can be retrofitted to production raceways to exercise fish in a cost-effective manner.
1997 Demonstrated chinook salmon instream postrelease survival is increased by being exposed to a diverse array of live predators during culture pilot scale raceways.
1997 Demonstrated chinook salmon can be conditioned to respond to the scent of a predator.


Section 3. Relationships to Other Projects

Project ID Title Description Umbrella
9701300 Yakima Cle Elum Hatchery O & M Strategies being developed under NATURES are being implemented in YKFP test of supplementation. No
833500 Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery O & M Strategies being developed under NATURES will be used in the Nez Perce fish culture facilities No


Section 4. Objectives, Tasks and Schedules

Objectives and Tasks

Objective Task
1. Determine if rearing salmon in seminatural raceway habitat increases postrelease survival. a. Develop raceway habitats composed of natural substrate, instream structure, and overhead cover.
1. b. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how these seminatural raceway components affect salmon behavior, coloration, growth, disease status, predator vulnerability, and instream postrelease survival.
1. c. Based on these pilot scale evaluations, select a workable seminatural raceway habitat with the greatest promise of producing wild-like fish with increased smolt-adult survival.
1. d. Conduct production scale evaluation at salmon enhancement hatcheries to verify the selected seminatural raceway habitat increases smolt-adult survival.
2. Determine if rearing salmon in raceways where food is presented in a natural manner by underwater feeders increases postrelease survival. a. Develop underwater feeding system.
2. b. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how underwater feed delivery systems affect salmon behavior, growth, disease status, predator vulnerability and instream postrelease survival.
2. c. Based on these pilot scale evaluations, select a workable underwater feed delivery system with the greatest promise of producing wild-like fish with increased smolt-adult survival.
2. d. Conduct production scale evaluation at salmon enhancement hatcheries to verify the selected underwater feed delivery system increases smolt-adult survival.
3. Determine if predator avoidance training increases postrelease survival. a. Develop predator avoidance training protocols.
3. b. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how these predator avoidance training protocols affect salmon behavior, growth, disease status, predator vulnerability, and instream postrelease survival.
3. c. Based on these pilot scale evaluations, select a predator avoidance training protocol with the greatest promise of producing wild-like fish with increased smolt-adult survival.
3. d. Conduct production scale evaluations at salmon hatcheries to verify the selected predator avoidance training protocol increases smolt-adult survival.
4. Determine if rearing salmon in raceways with natural current velocities that exercise fish increases postrelease survival. a. Develop technology to increase the water velocity in raceways to at least one body length per second.
4. b. Using this technology, develop exercise protocols.
4. c. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how these exercise protocols affect salmon behavior, morphology, growth, pathology, predator vulnerabilty, and instream postrelease survival.
4. d. Based on these pilot scale evaluations, select a workable exercise protocol with the greatest promise of producing wild-like fish with increased smolt-adult survival.
4. e. Conduct production scale evaluations at salmon enhancement hatcheries to verify the selected exercise protocol increases smolt-adult-survival.
5. Determine if rearing salmon on diets supplemented with natural live feeds increases postrelease survival. a. Develop live food diets.
5. b. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how these live food diets affect salmon behavior, foraging ability, coloration, growth, disease status, predator vulnerability, and instream postrelease survival.
5. c. Based on these pilot scale evaluations, select the live food diet with the greatest promise of producing wild-like fish with increased smolt-adult survival.
5. d. Conduct production scale evaluation at salmon hatcheries to verify the selected live food diet increases smolt-adult survival.
6. Determine if rearing salmon in raceways with natural sound levels increases salmon postrelease survival. a. Develop quieting technology that can be retrofitted to hatcheries so that fish can be reared in raceways with natural acoustic levels.
6. b. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how rearing in natural and artificially noisy acoustic levels affects salmon behavior, morphology, growth, pathology, predator vulnerability, and instream postrelease survival.
6. c. If the pilot scale evaluations indicate problems with unnatural noise levels, conduct production scale evaluation at salmon hatcheries to verify that quieting hatcheries to natural acoustic volumes increases smolt-adult survival.
7. Determine if rearing salmon in raceways with full oxygen saturation throughout the raceway increases postrelease survival. a. Use pilot scale evaluations to determine how rearing salmon in full oxygen saturation levels effects salmon behavior, morphology, growth, pathology, predator vulnerabilty, and instream postrelease survival.
7. b. If the pilot scale evaluations indicate problems with unnaturally low oxygen levels, then conduct production scale evaluation at salmon hatcheries to verify that maintaining oxygen at saturation levels increases smolt-adult survival.

Objective Schedules and Costs

Objective Start Date End Date Measurable Biological Objectives Milestone FY 2000 Cost %
1 08/01/91 12/01/05 yes X 40.0%
2 03/01/94 10/01/96 yes X 8.0%
3 08/01/91 08/01/05 yes X 10.0%
4 03/01/91 12/01/05 yes X 10.0%
5 08/01/91 10/01/98 yes X 12.0%
6 01/01/00 01/01/06 yes X 15.0%
7 01/01/00 01/01/06 yes X 5.0%


Section 5. Estimated Budget Summary

Itemized Budget

Item Note FY 2000 Cost
Personnel $154,000
Fringe $ 28,000
Supplies $ 60,600
Operating $ 28,000
Capital $ 57,000
PIT tags 6000 $ 17,400
Travel $ 18,000
Indirect $ 54,000
Subcontractor PSMFC contractual services $ 83,000
Total Itemized Budget $500,000


Total estimated budget

Total FY 2000 project cost $500,000
Amount anticipated from previously committed BPA Funds $ 0
Total FY 2000 budget request $500,000
FY 2000 forecast from 1999 $ 0
% change from forecast 0.0%


Reason for change in estimated budget

Not applicable


Reason for change in scope

Not applicable


Cost Sharing

Organization Item or service provided Amount Cash or In-Kind
NMFS Personnel, Equipment, Supplies, and O & M $255,000 unknown

 

Outyear Budget Totals

2001 2002 2003 2004
All Phases $500,000 $500,000 $600,000 $600,000
Total Outyear Budgets $500,000 $500,000 $600,000 $600,000
 

Other Budget Explanation

Schedule Constraints: The schedule may be modified when new ideas offering solutions to problems arise. The main constraint that may cause schedule changes is the level of funding and the accessability of production scale facilities to evaluate smolt-adult survival.


Section 6. References

Reference Watershed?
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Banks, J. L. 1990. A review of rearing density experiments: can hatchery effectiveness be improved? p. 94-102 in Status and future of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin - conservation and enhancement. NOAA Tech. Memorandum NMFS F/NWC-187. No
Besner, M., and L. S. Smith. 1983. Modification of swimming mode and stamina in two stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) by differing levels of long-term continuous exercise. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:933-939. No
Burrows, R. E. 1969. The influence of fingerling quality on adult salmon survivals. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 98:777-784. No
Christiansen, J., E. Ringoe, and M. Jobling. 1989. Effects of sustained exercise on growth and body composition of first-feeding fry of Artic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Aquaculture 79:329-335. No
Christiansen, J. S., and M. Jobling. 1990. The behaviour and the relationship between food intake and growth of juvenile Artic char, Salvelinus alpinus L., subjected to sustained exercise. Can. J. Zool. 68(10)2185-2191. No
Christiansen, J., S.Y.S. Svendsen, and M. Jobling. 1992. The combined effects of stocking density and sustained exercise on the behaviour, food intake, and growth of juvenile Artic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Can. J. Zool. 70(1)115-122. No
Cresswell, R. C., and R. Williams. 1983. Post-stocking movements and recapture of hatchery-reared trout released into flowing water-effect of prior acclimation to flow. J. Fish. biol. 23:265-276. No
Denton, C. 1988. Marine survival of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, reared at three different densities. Alaska Dep. Fish. Game FRED report 88, Juneau. No
Donnelly, W. A., and F. G. Whoriskey, Jr. 1991. Background-color acclimation of brook trout for crypsis reduces risk of predation by hooded mergansers Lophodytes cucullatus. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 11:206-211. No
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Fenderson, O. C., W. H. Everhart, and K. M. Muth. 1968. Comparative agonistic and feeding behavior of hatchery-reared and wild salmon in aquaria. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25:1-14. No
Greene, C. W. 1952. Results from stocking brook trout of wild and hatchery strains at Stillwater Pond. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 81:43-52. No
Hesthagen, T., and B. O. Johnsen. 1989. Lake survival of hatchery and pre-stocked pond brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 20:91-95. No
Hochackka, P. W. 1961. Liver glycogen reserves of interacting resident and introduced trout populations. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 18:125-135. No
Hopley, C. 1980. Cowlitz spring chinook rearing density study. Proceedings of the Annual Northwest Fish Culture Conference 31:152-159. No
Johnsen, B. O., and O. Ugedal. 1986. Feeding by hatchery-reared and wild brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in a Norwegian stream. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 17:281-287. No
Johnson, L. D. 1978. Evaluation of esocid stocking program in Wisconsin. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Publication 11:298-301. No
Kanayama, Y. 1968. Studies of the conditioned reflex in lower vertebrates: X. Defensive conditioned reflex in chum salmonfry in group. Mar. Biol. 2:77-87. No
Leon, K. A. 1986. Effect of exercise on feed consumption, growth, food conversion, and stamina of brook trout. Prog. Fish-Cult. 48:43-46. No
Martin, R. M., and A. Wertheimer. 1989. Adult production of chinook salmon reared at different densities and released as two smolt sizes. Prog. Fish-Cult. 51:194-200. No
Mason, J. W., O. M. Brynilson, and P. E. Degurse. 1967. Comparative survival of wild and domestic strains of brook trout in streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 96(3):313-319. No
Maynard, D. J., T. A. Flagg, and C. V.W. Mahnken. 1995. A review of semi-natural culture strategies for enhancing the postrelease survival of anadromous salmonids. Am. Fish. Soc. Symposium 15:307-314. No
Maynard, D. J., T. A. Flagg, and C. V. W. Mahnken. 1996a. Development of a natural rearing system to improve supplemental fish quality. Annual Report 1991-1995. DE-A179-91BP20651, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. No
Maynard, D. J., G. C. McDowell, E. P. Tezak, and T. A. Flagg. 1996b. The effect of diets supplemented with live food on the foraging behavior of cultured fall chinook salmon. Prog. Fish-Cult. 58:187-191. No
Maynard, D. J., T. A. Flagg, C. V. W. Mahnken, and S. L. Schroder. 1996c. Natural rearing technologies for increasing postrelease survival of hatchery-reared salmon. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Supplement 2:71-77. No
Maynard, D. J., T. A. Flagg, C. V. W. Mahnken and S. L. Schroder. 1998a. Natural Rearing Enhancement System Technology for salmon culture. p. 45-50 Proceedings of the Columbia River Anadromous Salmonid Rehabilitiation and Passage Symposium. E. L. Brannon No
Maynard, D. J., E. P. Tezak, M. Crewson, D. A. Frost, T. A. Flagg, S. L. Schroder, C. Johnson, and C. V. W. Mahnken. 1998b. Seminatural raceway habitat increases chinook salmon post-release survival. p. 81-91. Proc. 48th NW Fish Cult. Conf. Dec. 2-4, 1997 No
Maynard, D. J., A. L. LaRae, G. C. McDowell, G. A. Snell, T. A. Flagg, and C.V.W. Mahnken. 1998c. Predator avoidance training can increase post-release survival of chinook salmon. p. 59-62. in Proc. 48th NW Fish Cult. Conf., Dec. 2-4, 1997. No
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Section 7. Abstract

Abstract


Reviews and Recommendations

This information was not provided on the original proposals, but was generated during the review process.

This project has not yet been reviewed

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