BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal
Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget
see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations
Title of project
Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Individual Juvenile Steelhead Based on Radiotelemetry for Gas Monitoring
BPA project number 5509200
Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
National Biological Service
Sponsor type WA-Federal Agency
Proposal contact person or principal investigator
|Mailing address||Columbia River Research Laboratory
5501A Cook-Underwood Road
Cook, WA 98605
BPA technical contact , EWI
Biological opinion ID 2, 11, 16, 17, 18
NWPPC Program number
This project will use a miniature pressure-sensing radio tag to determine the exposure histories of individual juvenile steelhead migrating through reservoirs with high total dissolved gas (TDG). High TDG results from spill under the Biological Opinion Action #2.
Project start year 1997 End year 2000
Start of operation and/or maintenance 0
Project development phase Implementation
This study is a part of work conducted under Objective 6 (“Conduct research and monitoring of GBT in juvenile salmonids migrating in the Columbia and Snake rivers during times of high TDG”) of BPA project 87-401, “Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis”.
“Symptoms of gas bubble trauma induced in salmon by gas supersaturation” (Tom Backman and Dennis Rondorf . Will work in conjunction with this study (investigating the signs of GBT in purse-seined fish and the distribution of TDG and fish) to determine if fish implanted with transmitters are similar to untagged fish in depth and location in the reservoir using hydroacoustics. This study had not been funded at the time of this writing.
Biological results achieved
Annual reports and technical papers
Results of this project can be used as a sound base of information about the depths used by individual juvenile steelhead in the Columbia River. This knowledge is essential to understand the effects high total dissolved gas (TDG) may have on these animals. Each meter of depth allows compensation for approximately 10% of supersaturation (Weitkamp and Katz 1980). Data from this study can be used 1) as a model of individual fish exposure to TDG that can be duplicated in laboratories to determine the risk different levels of TDG have on juvenile salmonids migrating in the river; 2) as a source of a horizontal and vertical component in geographical information systems (GIS) housing TDG data for the prediction of the risk of TDG on juvenile salmonids; 3) as a source of definitive fish depth information in reservoirs and near dams for the design of surface collectors for the passage of fish around dams; and 4) to refine current survival models such as CRiSP, the TDG component of which is based on a simplistic, untested hypothesis of a constant depth during migration.
Specific measureable objectives
1) Test a newly developed depth-sensing miniature radio transmitter for use in juvenile salmonids.
2) Determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of individual migrating juvenile steelhead in a reservoir.
3) Determine the near-dam horizontal and vertical distribution of migrating juvenile steelhead.
1) The radio transmitter consistently indicates the correct depth to the nearest 0.3 meters.
2) Depths of juvenile steelhead are greater than the compensation depth, based on TDG at fish locations.
3) Juvenile steelhead migrate deeper in the water column in areas of high TDG than in areas of low TDG.
4) Depths of migrating juvenile steelhead are constant.
Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
Continued availability of test fish (hatchery steelhead)
TDG greater than 100% in at least one year of the study
1) Experimental design, equipment, techniques, and materials.
Much of the work in 1997 will be of a preliminary nature as this depth tag was recently developed and has not been field tested. Laboratory experiments will be conducted prior to field work to determine the best method of attachment/implantation and if the radio transmitter affects the buoyancy of tagged fish. Tests of reported depth versus the actual pressure of tags in fish and buoyancy of tagged and untagged fish will be conducted. The transmitter itself will be evaluated to determine accuracy and precision of reported depths using computer-controlled pressure chambers at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Richland, WA) in cooperation with Dr. Tom Carlson.
Juvenile steelhead of hatchery origin will be tracked through the Ice Harbor Dam-to-McNary Dam reach. This reach was selected because gradients of TDG occur due to the different TDG levels in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Fish collected at McNary, Lower Monumental, or Ice Harbor dams will be implanted with pressure-sensitive radio transmitters. Fish will be sequestered in the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace at depths sufficient to prevent gas bubble trauma (GBT; approximately 5 m) for a period of at least 24 hours. Fish releases will be made during of conditions of spill (evening hours) and non-spill (daylight hours) in an effort to track fish in “plumes” of water with high and low TDG.
We propose to release five-to-ten fish every three-to-five days. This schedule is based on a median travel time of approximately three days between Ice Harbor and McNary dams (estimated from Fish Passage Center 1993, 1994). The actual number of releases will depend on the travel times of the tagged fish in each group. We plan to release a maximum of 100 fish during the study period in each year.
Tagged fish will be monitored in the Snake River below Ice Harbor Dam and in McNary reservoir from boats and in the forebay near McNary Dam with telemetry equipment mounted on the dam. The equipment at McNary Dam will provide detailed information about fish near the dam and will serve to confirm when fish have left the study area.
Telemetry equipment used from boats will consist of one receiver and 6-element antenna on each of two boats. Additional equipment will include global positioning systems and total dissolved gas meters. We will track fish using two boats each operating two 10 h shifts per day from the time of release until the time the fish pass McNary Dam. We will use a tracking protocol designed to maximize the number of fish contacts as well as the amount of data collected from individual fish. We will alternate between attempting to locate as many fish as possible (Method 1) and intensely following individuals (Method 2). For example, we may spend several hours locating as many fish as possible and then spend 40 minutes following one randomly-selected individual. This process will be repeated until the fish have passed McNary Dam. This method will provide large amounts of data about within-fish variability in vertical and horizontal movements of individuals while allowing us to measure between-fish variability from a larger number of fish than if we intensely tracked a small number of fish.
At each fish contact, location via a global positioning system (GPS), TDG, water temperature, and fish depth will be recorded. When fish are contacted using Method 1 depths will be recorded over a period of 15 minutes with TDG measured at the end of this period. This time is based on the minimum time required for the TDG meter to equilibrate. We will collect several hundred observations of fish depth during this time. Data will be collected continuously when individuals are located using Method 2. All efforts will be made to avoid affecting fish behavior during data collection by keeping an adequate distance from the fish during tracking. Total dissolved gas meters will be tested on a regular schedule (at least weekly) to ensure they are operating within established criteria.
The equipment mounted at the dam will consist of five data-logging telemetry receivers collecting data from 4 to 8 4-element yagi antennas each. The antennas will be placed approximately 60 m apart across the earthen dam on the Oregon shore and between the navigation lock and the Washington shore, and at every other turbine unit on the powerhouse and every other spill gate across the spillway. This configuration will enable us to receive data from fish located up to approximately 400 m upstream from the dam over the entire length of the dam.
Hydroacoustics will be used to determine if the depths and locations of tagged fish represent other fish in the reservoir. The horizontal and vertical distribution of tagged fish will be compared with locations of other fish in the reservoir identified using hydroacoustics to relate observational data on individual fish and the distribution of the population at large. Hydroacoustic information will be provided by a study titled “Symptoms of gas bubble trauma induced in salmon by gas supersaturation”, headed by the NBS (Dennis Rondorf, Cook, WA) and the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Tom Backman, Portland, OR). No further details of this cooperation are known at this time because the hydroacoustic project had not received funding as of this writing.
2) Data analysis
Data collected will be analyzed using several methods. Distributions, measures of central tendency and associated errors in fish depth and TDG will be calculated for each fish and correlations between fish depth and TDG from the fish monitored using Method 2 will be examined for statistical significance. Within-fish variability in depth will also be estimated from this data. Data will be examined for diurnal trends and to determine if juvenile steelhead travel at a constant depth during migration or if their depth varies. Previous studies of the vertical distribution of juvenile salmonids indicate a diurnal change in vertical and horizontal distribution (Smith 1974; Ledgerwood et al. 1991). Correlations between fish depth, TDG, reservoir depth, and reservoir temperature will be examined from data collected using Method 1. Between-fish variability in depth will be estimated from this data. Fish tracks will be plotted using a GIS.
Estimates of the sample sizes required to achieve a specified level of precision in the depth estimates can not be drawn as the data on which to base such calculations do not exist. We know of no previous studies using this method to assess the depth of juvenile salmonids. All depth-sensing radio transmitters have previously been too large for use in juvenile salmonids.
3) Type and number of fish to be used
This study will use juvenile steelhead of hatchery origin. The numbers of fish needed for work in 1997, 1998, and 1999 will up to 300 in each year, including fish for laboratory studies; no fish will be required in the year 2000. Fish will be taken from the collection facilities at either McNary, Ice Harbor, or Lower Monumental dams, depending on the availability of fish.
Brief schedule of activities
1997: Tag evaluation; release fish and track from boats
1998: Release fish and track them from boats and with fixed gear at McNary Dam
1999: Release fish and track them from boats and with fixed gear at McNary Dam
2000: Analyze data and write final report to BPA and articles for publishing peer-reviewed journals.
There is currently much debate over the extent of the role high TDG, from NMFS BO #2, plays in fish survival in the Columbia River basin. Current monitoring programs are based on the examination of passively (collected at dams) and actively (collected with purse seines) captured fish. These programs are needed for monitoring purposes, but do nothing to help understand the root of the issue: How deep are the fish and what is their relative exposure to TDG?. This question is of the utmost importance because fish depth is one of the most important factors determining the presence and severity of GBT. Data on the exposure histories, including depths and TDG at fish locations, will enable researchers and managers to assess and predict the effects of TDG on juvenile salmonids. Repeated measures from individuals is the most appropriate method for this purpose.
1) Tagged fish behave as untagged fish in the reservoir.
2) Radio signal can be detected at depths of tagged fish.
3) Tagged fish can be located and followed without affecting fish behavior.
Summary of expected outcome
We expect fish depths are not constant during their migration, as variation in biological systems is the rule rather than the exception. We expect approximately 50-75% of juvenile steelhead will be in the upper 10 meters of the water column, based on studies using hydroacoustics or vertical gill nets. We expect we will be able to locate and track fish at these depths with the proposed radio transmitter. The study we propose will produce information about the variation and range of depths used by individual fish; we have no information on which to base predictions of this data. This knowledge is required to understand the exposure of the fish to TDG and possible effects on survival.
Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
Funding must be received no later than December 1 to allow purchases of non-expendable equipment. Much of this equipment must be ordered 2-4 months in advance of the field work to ensure timely delivery.
There are safety concerns when operating boats in the Columbia and Snake rivers.
Annual summaries of information will be prepared for BPA, culminating in a final report after the 2000 project year. Articles prepared for publishing in fishery journals will receive peer-review.
|Historic costs||FY 1996 budget data*||Current and future funding needs|
|(none)||New project - no FY96 data available||1997: 537,000|
* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.
CBFWA funding review group System Policy
Recommendation Tier 3 - do not fund