BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
New Fish Tag System

BPA project number   8331900

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
NMFS

Sponsor type   WA-Federal Agency

Proposal contact person or principal investigator
 NameEarl Prentice
 Mailing addressNational Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 130
Manchester, WA 98353
 Phone206/553-4219

BPA technical contact   Tom Morse, EWN 503/230-3694

Biological opinion ID   NMFS BO RPA

NWPPC Program number   5.0F.10

Short description
Determine the biological and technical feasibility of using PIT-tag technology to passively obtain information on juvenile and adult salmonids and to develop ancillary equipment to expand the PIT-tag system's capabilities of meeting this objective.

Project start year   1983    End year   2001

Start of operation and/or maintenance   

Project development phase   Implementation

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects

Project history
BPA initiated a contract with NMFS in 1983 to determine the technical and biological feasibility of applying PIT-tag and associated technology to fishery problems in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) migration corridor. NMFS designed, evaluated, and implemented such a system using a 400- kHz frequency PIT tag. The system enables data to be passively collected on individual juvenile salmonids at selected locations within the CRB in near real time without the fish being handled.

The research and development effort of this project has and will continue. to result in products that aid stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of various actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. This research will provide alternative approaches that will enable fishery researchers and managers to address previously unanswered questions, and to provide accurate reliable data in near real time thus enabling effective decisions to be made regarding actions taken or to be taken. This research will aid stakeholders in obtaining information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats. The products resulting from this research can be used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and broodstock research efforts as related to endangered species as listed under ESA. This research can also be used in obtaining survival and migration timing information on stocks of interest and provide accurate and timely data for evaluating water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities. This research will aid all stakeholders by providing data needed for the management and restoration of salmonid and other fish stocks. This project is cost-shared with NMFS and U.S. Army of Corps of Engineers (COE).

To achieve the above goals, the research and development effort is directed at: 1) Refining the mechanical operation of 3-way rotational PIT-tag separation gates used to direct fish to predetermined locations; 2) Completion of the stand-alone multi-purpose computer program used in connection with separation gates that direct fish to predetermined locations; controlling timed sub-samples, and data base controlled sub-samples; 3) Development and evaluation of a flat-plate (pass-over) PIT-tag interrogation system for Bonneville Dam. 4) Determining the performance of prototype 134.2-kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems that could replace the current 400-kHz PIT-tag interrogation system in the CRB; 5) Determining the electromagnetic field effects on reproducing fish; and 6) Evaluating several types of PIT tags to determine if they will reduce tag loss in sexually maturing adult salmon.

Biological results achieved
The biological studies associated with the PIT-tag project have been conducted in the laboratory, in the field under controlled conditions, and in the field under natural conditions. In the laboratory we have been able to determine: 1) A suitable anatomical area for PIT-tag placement within salmonids that is acceptable from a biological and human standpoint; 2) The minimum size juvenile salmonid that could be effectively tagged with the PIT tag; 3) Host tissue response to the tag; 4) The effect of the tag on growth and survival for various age groups of fish; 5) Tag wound healing rate and disease occupance from tagging; 6) Tag effect on swimming performance of parr, transitional, and smolted salmon; 7) Effect of electromagnetic fields produced by the PIT-tag interrogation system on the biology of salmon and a surrogate fish, Medaka; and 8) PIT-tag retention in various sizes and species of salmonids in relation to traditional tags and marks.

In the field under controlled conditions we have determined: 1) Reaction of predators to PIT-tagged and traditionally marked and tagged fish in both clear and turbid water; 2) The growth, survival, and tag retention of several species of salmonids held for extended periods in both fresh water and sea water; and 3) The behavior of PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids to various geometries and colors of PIT-tag interrogation passageways.

In the field under natural conditions we have determined: 1) Return rate, tag retention, size at return, and timing of PIT-tagged coho salmon released to the wild; 2) Overwinter survival (recapture rate) of coho salmon released to the wild in relation to coded wire tagged and other traditional tagged and marked fish; and 3) The reaction of naturally migrating coho salmon to electromagnetic field produced by an underwater PIT-tag interrogation system.

Activities that support the CRB PIT-tag system and consequently indirectly enhance the salmon recovery effort includes the following ancillary systems development: 1) PIT-tag injectors both hand-held and Semi-automatic; 2) A computer based PIT-tag data entry station; 3) Rectangular slide-gate fish separation system; 4) Round 2- and 3- way separation fish separation systems; 5) The first computer program for recording PIT-tagged fish passing through interrogation units at darns; 6) The first rectangular and round PIT-tag interrogation systems for juvenile salmonids; 7) The first adult salmon PIT-tag interrogation units; 8) The first underwater towed PIT-tag interrogation system; 9) The first CRB PIT-tag data base; and 10) The first computer based juvenile separation system.

Annual reports and technical papers
Brannas, E., H. Lundqvist, E. Prentice, M. Schmitz, k. Brannas, and B. Wiklund.
1994. Use of the passive integrated transponder (PIT) in a fish identification and monitoring system for fish behavior studies. Trans. of the Am. Fish. Soc. 123:395-401.

Flagg, T.A., and E. F. Prentice. 1988. The PIT tag system and its suitability in Sockeye salmon. Sockeye culture workshop, Ketchikan, Alaska. Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game. p 8.

Maynard, D. J., D. A. Frost, F. W. Waknitz, and E. F. Prentice. 1996. The vulnerability of marked age-0 steelhead to a visual predator. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 125:330-333.

McCutcheon, C.S, E.F. Prentice, and D.L. Park. 1994. Passive Monitoring of Migrating Adult Steelhead with PIT Tags. N. American J. Fish. Mang. 14:220-223.

Peterson, N. P., E. F. Prentice, and T. P. Quinn. 1994. Comparison of Sequential coded wire and passive integrated transponder tags for assessing overwinter growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon. N. Am. J. of Fish. Man. 14:870-873.

Prentice, E. F. 1990. A new internal telemetry tag for fish and crustaceans. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 85. Proceedings Fifteenth U.S.-Japan Meetings on Aquaculture. Albert Sparks (editor). p 9.

Prentice. E. F., T. A. Flagg, and C. S. McCutcheon. 1987. A study to determine the biological feasibility of a new fish tagging system. Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE-179-83BPII982, 109 p. plus Appendixes. (Available from Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112-2097.)

Prentice, E. F., T. A. Flagg, and C. McCutcheon. 1990. Feasibility of using implantable passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 7:317-322.

Prentice, E. F., T. A. Flagg, C. McCutcheon and D. Brastow. 1990. PIT-tag monitoring systems for hydroelectric dams and fish hatcheries. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 7:323-334.

Prentice, E. F., T. A. Flagg, C. McCutcheon, D. Brastow and D. Cross. 1990. Equipment, methods, and an automated data-entry station for PIT tagging. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 7:323-334.

Prentice. E. F., D. Maynard, S.L. Downing, D. A. Frost, M. S. Kellett, D. A. Bruland, P. SparksMcConkey, F. W. Waknitz, R. N. Iwamoto, K. McIntyre, and N. Paasch. 1994. A study to determine the biological feasibility of a new fish tagging system, 1990-93. Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE-179-83BPII982.

Prentice, E. F. and D. L. Park. 1984. A study to determine the biological feasibility of a new fish tagging system. Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE-AI79-83BPII982, 38 p. plus Appendix.

Prentice, E. F., D. L. Park, T. A. Flagg, and C. S. McCutcheon. 1986. A study to determine the biological feasibility of a new fish tagging system. Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE-179-83BPII982, 79 p. plus Appendixes.

Prentice, E. F., C. W. Sims, and D. L. Park. 1985. A study to determine the biological feasibility of a new fish tagging system. Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE- I 79-83BP 1 1982, 34 p. plus Appendixes.

Management implications
This work represents the continuation of several research projects that addresses the feasibility of a 134.2 kHz International Standards Organization (ISO) tag and associated technology that can be used to identify both smolts and adult salmon and the development of ancillary equipment. The continued development of the PIT tag and ancillary equipment will further expand the systems capabilities to address issues expressed in both the Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (examples are 2.ID, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

Specifically, research and development efforts of this project have and will continue to result in products that aid stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of various actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. This research has provide alternative approaches that enable fishery researchers and managers to address previously unanswered questions, and to provide accurate reliable data in near real time thus enabling effective decisions to be made regarding actions taken or to be taken. This research has aided stakeholders in obtaining information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats. The products resulting from this research are used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and broodstock research efforts as related to endangered species as listed under ESA. This research is also used in obtaining survival and migration timing information on stocks of interest and to provide accurate and timely data for evaluating water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities. This research is aiding all stakeholders by providing data needed for the management and restoration of salmonid and other fish stocks. This project is cost-shared with NWS and COE.

Specific measureable objectives
The objectives of the research and development effort are:

1) Improve the performance and reliability of the 3-way rotational PIT-tag separation gates used to direct fish to predetermined locations.

2) Complete the stand-alone multi-purpose computer program used in connection with separation gates to direct fish to predetermined locations, controlling timed sub-samples, and data base controlled subsamples.

3) Develop and evaluate the 400-kHz flat-plate (pass-over) PIT-tag interrogation system for Bonneville Dam.

4) Determine the performance of prototype 134.2- kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems that could replace the current 400-kHz PIT-tag interrogation system in the CRB.

5) Complete the project directed at determining the electromagnetic field effects on reproducing fish.

6) Evaluate several types of physically altered PIT tags to determine if they will reduce tag loss in sexually maturing adult salmon.

Testable hypothesis
1) New and old versions of the 3-way rotational PIT-tag separation gates used to direct fish to pre determined locations are equal in performance and reliability.

2) New and old stand-alone multi-purpose computer program used in connection with separation gates to direct fish to predetermined locations; controlling timed sub-samples, and data base controlled subsamples are equal in performance.

3) The 400-kHz flat-plate (pass-by) PIT-tag interrogation system for Bonneville Dam will detect 400-kHz PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids.

4) The prototype 134.2- kHz and currently used 400-kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems have equal performance.

5) Offspring of reproducing fish exposed and not exposed to the electromagnetic field of PIT-tag interrogation systems will have the same survival, growth, or morphology.

6) Physically altered and non altered PIT tags have equal tag retention in sexually maturing adult salmon.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
NMFS assumes the continued support and cooperation from the stakeholders. This support is critical in achieving the goals of the program.

Methods
Embodied within the PIT-tag research and development program are six projects: 1) Improve the performance and reliability of the 3-way rotational PIT-tag separation gates used to direct fish to pre determined locations; 2) Complete the stand-alone multi-purpose computer program used in connection with separation gates to direct fish to predetermined locations, controlling timed sub-samples, and data base controlled sub-samples; -3) Develop and evaluate the 400-kHz flat-plate (pass-by) PIT-tag interrogation system for Bonneville Darn; 4) Determine the performance of prototype 134.2- kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems that could replace the current 400-kHz PIT-tag interrogation system in the CRB;
5) Complete the project directed at determining the electromagnetic field effects on reproducing fish; and
6) Evaluate several types of physically altered PIT tags to determine if they will reduce tag loss in sexually maturing adult salmon.

Those projects which are non-biological in nature use the expertise of mechanical and electrical engineers, fabricators, machinists, and computer programmers. Design drawings are often prepared that are later altered as the prototype equipment is fabricated and evaluated. All systems are judged against a set of evaluation standards. The evaluation process takes place in both the laboratory (dry-testing) and field (wet-testing). Modifications are made as indicated through the testing program. Once alterations-are made the systems are reevaluated.

Biological oriented studies use standard scientific protocol and fish husbandry techniques as needed. All studies are replicated and data subjected to appropriate statistical tests. When fish are required in studies, proper permits are obtained. Study results are reported at workshops, in BPA reports, and in the scientific literature.

Brief schedule of activities
The primary research and development effort for 1997 will be focused on: flat-plate (pass-over) PIT-tag interrogation technology for juvenile salmonids (the technology is also directly applicable to adult salmon interrogation), continuance of work directed at improving tag retention in sexually maturing salmonids, and completing reports associated with projects completed during the 1996-97 period.

For the period of 1998-2001, the program will focus on: 1) expanding the capabilities of the "Passover/pass-by" PIT-tag interrogation systems so it can be used in small streams and locations within the juvenile collection facilities prior to major dewatering; 2) design and evaluate a series of 134.2-kHz "pass-through" and "pass-by" adult PIT-tag interrogation systems in a test fish ladder; 3) assist BPA in installing new 134.2-kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems within CRB; and 4) integrate passive data collection (e.g., counting, fish condition, and length monitoring) systems into designated information gathering sites with CRB. This effort would result in reduced fish handling, more reliable data, and the availability of data in near real time.

Biological need
This work represents the continuation of several research projects that addresses the feasibility of a 134.2 kHz International Standards Organization (ISO) tag and associated technology that can be used to identify both smolts and adult salmon and the development of ancillary equipment and the system's effect on fish. The continued development of the PIT tag and ancillary equipment will further expand the systems capabilities to address issues expressed in both the Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (examples are 2.lD, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

Critical uncertainties
None

Summary of expected outcome
1) Improved performance and reliability of the 3-way rotational PIT-tag separation gates used to direct fish to predetermined locations. This system will reduce the need to handle fish.

2) Completion of the stand-alone multi-purpose computer program used in connection with separation gates to direct fish to predetermined locations, controlling timed sub-samples, and data base controlled sub-samples. This system will reduce the need to handle fish.

3) Development and evaluate the 400-kHz flat-plate (pass-over) PIT-tag interrogation system for Bonneville Dam. This system, after it is developed, will provide near real time data from PIT tagged fish passing over the interrogation system.

4) The performance of prototype 134.2- kHz PIT-tag interrogation systems will determine if the new system could replace the current 400-kHz PIT-tag interrogation system in the CRB. This effort could result in all present PIT-tag interrogation systems in the CRB being replaced with more reliable, accurate, and less costly PIT-tag systems.

5) Completion of the project directed at determining the electromagnetic field effects on reproducing fish. The information derived from this effort will be used in assessing the biological feasibility of using an extended range PIT-tag interrogation system for adult fish in the CRB.

6) Tag retention information on several types of physically altered PIT tags. Information from this effort will aid in improving tag retention in sexually maturing salmonids.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
For the goals of this project to be obtained in a timely and cost efficient manner, the cooperation of all stakeholders is required. This cooperation is obtained through open lines of communication and a common desire to restore the resource. The success of the program to date reflects this spirit of cooperation.

Risks
None

Monitoring activity
Continued communication with PSMFC, BPA, COE, the PIT-tag technical committee and the fisheries community within the Columbia River Basin. These entities will be the users of the systems developed under this development program. It is thus critical that all parities communicate through appropriate channels so that any modifications to the systems can be addressed.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
1983: 81,220
1984: 353,866
1985: 746,800
1986: 400,900
1987: 429,800
1988: 1,001,400
1989: 1,847,700
1990: 1,063,700
1991: 1,206,200
1992: 1,200,000
1993: 0
1994: 1,406,400
1995: 460,000
1996: 0
Obligation: 0
Authorized: 430,100
Planned: 657,700
1997: 800,000
1998: 850,000
1999: 875,000
2000: 900,000
2001: 900,000

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   Mainstem

Recommendation    Tier 1 - fund

Recommended funding level   $800,000

BPA 1997 authorized budget (approved start-of-year budget)   $800,000