BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation

BPA project number   8816000

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
ODFW

Sponsor type   OR-State/Local Agency

Proposal contact person or principal investigator
 NameHarry Lorz
 Mailing addressOregon Dept. Fish & Wildlife
P.O. Box 59
Portland, OR 97207
 Phone541/757-4186

BPA technical contact   Steve Levy, EWN 503/230-3914

Biological opinion ID   None

NWPPC Program number   3.1D.1

Short description
The hypothesis to be tested was that the rearing capacity of chinook salmon in a surface water hatchery could be increased through use of supplemental oxygen without reduction in survival to adulthood. The project examined the effects of density, oxygen supplementation, and raceway design on water quality, rearing, and survival of chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, Oakridge, Oregon. Duplicate raceways contained juvenile chinook salmon at normal rearing conditions without oxygen, fish reared at normal density with oxygen supplementation, fish reared at triple density with oxygen supplementation, and fish reared in a series of three Michigan ponds with oxygen supplementation. Representative samples of fish were tagged with coded wire tags. Water quality was recorded weekly, with a continuous monitoring system throughout the rearing period. Growth, size distribution, and mortality were followed throughout the rearing period. Returning adults will be collected, heads removed, and coded wire tags decoded for determination of survival of the various groups. Analysis of data and final report will be completed by September 2000.

Project start year   1987    End year   2000

Start of operation and/or maintenance   

Project development phase   Other

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects
BPA #88-160-3 Dr. Schreck's studies utilized our released juvenile salmon migrants to
determine characteristics of seaward migration as related to oxygen supplementation.

Project history
Initial activities concerned modification of existing raceways to the conformation of Michigan raceways, installation of contact columns for introducing oxygen, and modification of the intake structure to protect the water supply. Experimental design called for spring chinook being reared and released for four years. Water quality was to be monitored and growth of rearing fish measured.

Costs were as follows:

1987-1989 $987,627-Major intake construction & pond modification
1989-1990 $429,525-Includes Subcontract to OSU-Migration studies
1990-1991 $450,872-Includes Subcontract to OSU-Migration studies
1991-1992 $289,039
1992-1993 $284,267
1993-1994 $263,106
1994-1995 $97,996
1995-1996 94,811
$2,899,243

Biological results achieved
To date, the project has had few tangible benefits because it is presently finishing the data collection phase. The next few years will be devoted to analysis of water quality and rearing data, collection and analysis of adult returns, and preparation of papers for publication. Manuscripts have been published and a few manuscripts are nearing publication.

Annual reports and technical papers
Colt, J., J.E. Sheahan, and G.R. Bouck. 1993. Evaluation of the "Michigan" type pure oxygen columns for oxygen addition and nitrogen removal. Aquacultural Engineering 12:141-154.

Ewing, R.D., T.R. Walters, M.A. Lewis, and J.E. Sheahan. 1994. Evaluation of fish transport procedures. I. Estimates of weights of fish in raceways and liberation trucks. Progressive Fish-Culturist. 56:153-159.

Ewing, S.K. and R.D. Ewing. 1995. A review of the effects of rearing density on survival to adulthood for Pacific salmon. Progressive Fish-Culturist. 57:1-25.

Ewing, R.D. and G.S. Ewing. An improved guillotine for removing the heads of coded wire-tagged fish. Progressive Fish-Culturist, in review.

Ewing, R.D., J.E. Sheahan. Air lift debris removal system. Progressive Fish-Culturist, in review.

Schreck, C.B., J.C. Snelling, R.E. Ewing, C.S. Bradford, L.E. Davis and C.H. Slater. 1994. Migratory Characteristics of juvenile spring chinook in the Willamette River. Completion Report. Bonneville Power Administration. Portland.

Schreck, C.B., J.C. Snelling, R.E. Ewing, C.S. Bradford, L.E. Davis and C.H. Slater. 1994. Migratory behavior of adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River and its tributaries. Completion Report. Bonneville Power Administration. Portland.

Annual Progress Reports

Ewing, R.D. and J.E. Sheahan. 1990. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Bonneville Power Administration, Annual Contract Research Report, Portland.

Ewing, R.D. and J.E. Sheahan. 1991. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Bonneville Power Administration, Annual Contract Research Report, Portland.

Ewing, R.D. and J.E. Sheahan. 1992. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Bonneville Power Administration, Annual Contract Research Report, Portland.

Ewing, R.D., S.K. Ewing, and J.E. Sheahan. 1993. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Bonneville Power Administration, Annual Contract Research Report, Portland.

Ewing, R.D., S.K. Ewing, and J.E. Sheahan. 1994. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Bonneville Power Administration, Annual Contract Research Report, Portland.

Management implications
An interim goal of NPPC is to reestablish historical numbers of salmon to the Columbia River basin. Increases in production are to be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. Rather than build many new hatcheries with their large capital construction cost, the study attempts to look at changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen and improvements in raceway design as a means to increase juvenile productive capacity and thus increased adult returns. If the research results are positive, then existing hatcheries could be retrofitted and hatchery production increased at lesser costs than building new hatchery facilities.

Specific measureable objectives
The overall goal of the project is to determine if chinook salmon can be reared at increased densities with oxygen supplementation without detrimental effects on the returns of adult salmon. There are two phases to the project, the rearing phase and the adult collection phase. We have completed the rearing phase and are halfway through the adult collection phase. The rearing phase should give us information on the water quality for fish rearing and on the growth and performance of the fish under the various experimental conditions. We should be able to determine if Michigan ponds provide better rearing conditions than normal raceways. however, final conclusions will be possible only after the return of he adult salmon and decoding of the coded-wire tags. At that time, we should be able to determine with a fair degree of certainty whether:


1. Chinook salmon can be reared at three times their normal rearing density if oxygen is added.

2. Michigan ponds are better, equal or worse than raceways for rearing chinook salmon.

3. Density of rearing affects the returns of chinook salmon.

4. Increased densities of chinook salmon reared with oxygen supplementation can profitably increase production at current facilities.

Testable hypothesis
Rearing capacity of spring chinook could be increased threefold in a surface water hatchery through use of supplemental oxygen, without reduction in survival to adulthood.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
The major underlying assumption is that the results obtained from the study will be applicable to all hatcheries and were not just specific to Willamette hatchery. The results are also dependent upon the vagaries of fish rearing and the ocean conditions leading to survival. At present, the rearing and release conditions at the hatchery seem within normal limits, so we feel that the experiment has been well conducted with no major problems with replication or the data sets.

Methods
The experimental design, number of fish per experimental groups, and description of equipment needs was laid out in the original project proposal funded in 1988. The statistical analysis to be used includes Analysis of variance, analysis of co-variance and linear regression.

Brief schedule of activities
1997-1999 Continued collection of returning adult spring chinook at Dexter Dam holding necessary fish for future broodstock. Collection of all coded wire tagged adults (heads) returning to facility for analysis of experimental returns. Collection of CWTed adults from Willamette Fall fishery and decoding of all heads received. Continue with analysis of data collected and continue manuscript publication. In 1999 collection of CWTs will be complete. Data on tag recoveries will be analyzed and a completion report written.

Annual Reports Topic
1996 Rearing characteristics (growth, conversion, disease, etc.)
1997 O2 and pH Analysis
1998 Gas Characteristics (Total sat., O2, N2)
1999 Other water quality parameters, Dexter, and scale analyses
2000 Final Summation and Adult Analyses

Biological need
To determine if increased hatchery production is possible without sacrificing adult survival and within the existing hatchery facilities.

Critical uncertainties
Will we have adequate funding to complete data collection and analysis for completion of the project?

Summary of expected outcome
Should be able to determine if chinook salmon juveniles can be reared at increased densities with oxygen supplementation without detrimental effects on adult returns.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation

Risks

Monitoring activity
Continue collection of returning adults at Dexter Dam to collect all coded wire tagged fish returning. Continue to collect information and heads from the spring chinook fishery at Willamette Falls.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
1988: 743,490
1989: 673,662
1990: 450,872
1991: 289,039
1992: 284,267
1993: 263,106
1994: 97,996
1996: 94,811
Obligation: 94,811
Authorized: 98,000
Planned: 192,811
1997: 98,700
1998: 103,600
1999: 80,000

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   Below Bonneville Dam

Recommendation    Tier 1 - fund

Recommended funding level   $98,700

BPA 1997 authorized budget (approved start-of-year budget)   $94,077