BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
Effects of Acclimation on the Survival of Spring Chinook Salmon aka: Eval of Pre-Rel Temp Acclimation at Klickitat Htch

BPA project number   8903000

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
WDFW

Sponsor type   WA-State/Local Agency

Proposal contact person or principal investigator
 NameAndrew Appleby
 Mailing addressWashington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife,
600 Capitol Way N.
Olympia, WA. 98501-1091
 Phone306/902-1091

BPA technical contact   Steve Levy, EWN 503/230-3914

Biological opinion ID   None

NWPPC Program number   

Short description
To construct the facilities required, then rear and release four brood years of spring chinook under various rearing conditions. Two treatment groups plus a control group are involved in this experiment. One group was reared using only ground water (control and normal practice at Klickitat). The second group was exposed to Klickitat River water for 3 weeks prior to release. The third groups was exposed to Klickitat river water for 6 weeks prior to releases. All groups were coded-wire tagged. The returns of tagged fish from catch and escapement are being analyzed to determine if there are significant survival advantages (smolt to adult) from exposing fish to ambient river water prior to release. All broods of juvenile fish have been tagged and released. Remaining work for FY-,97,98 include collection of coded-wire tagged fish in the ocean fisheries, tribal in-river fisheries and as escapement.

Project start year   1989    End year   1998

Start of operation and/or maintenance   1995

Project development phase   Implementation

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects
1) Augmented Fish Health Monitoring.
2) Evaluation of Fish Quality Indices.
3) Monitoring Environmental Conditions in the Lower Columbia River.
4) Missing Production Groups- Washington Hatcheries.
5) Columbia River Fisheries Development Program

Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Programs-
Sections 206(b)(1), 206(b)(1)(C), 206 (e)
Measures 206(b)(4), 703(e)(1) and (2).

Project history
FY89:
OBJECTIVE 1: Provide Klickitat River acclimation water to the Klickitat Hatchery. This was done in two phases. Phase 1 developed an Engineering Feasibility Study, pre-design development, and contract documents. Cost was $39,991

FY90:
Phase 2 of Objective 1 was begun during this year. The construction contract was advertised, awarded and construction began. All required permits (water rights, shorelines, and SEPA) were obtained during this year. An operations and maintenance budget for FY 91 of $66,709 was approved during this year. Objective 2: Secure adequate brood Klickitat spring chinook to fulfill study requirements was begun this year.

FY 91:
Objective 1, phase 2, was complete during this year. Total cost for construction was $729,886. The 1989 brood spring chinook (first group) were released in May 1991 (Objective 3). An operations and maintenance budget for FY92 of $71,333 was approved during this year. Additionally, continuation of Objectives 2 (Secure brood), Objective 3 (tagging and releasing fish), and Objective 5 (Data analysis and reports) occurred this year.

FY 92:
Minor additions were made to the 12 study ponds this year. Spring chinook were tagged and reared according to study specifics. The 1990 brood spring chinook (second group) was released in May 1992 (Objective 3). An operations and maintenance budget for FY93 of $66,833 was approved during this year. Additionally, continuation of Objectives 2 (Secure brood), Objective 3 (tagging and releasing fish), and Objective 5 (Data analysis and reports) occurred this year.

FY 93:
Spring chinook were tagged and reared according to study specifics. The 1991 brood spring chinook (third group) was released in May 1993 (Objective 3). An operations and maintenance budget for FY94 of $58,925 ($68,925-$10,00 carry over) was approved during this year. Additionally, Objectives 2 (Secure brood) was complete this year. Work on Objective 3 (tagging and releasing fish), and Objective 4 (collection of coded-wire tags) and Objective 5 (Data analysis and reports) occurred this year.

FY 94:
Spring chinook were tagged and reared according to study specifics. The 1992 brood spring chinook (fourth and last group) was released in May 1994 (Completing Objective 3; Tagging and release of study groups). An operations and maintenance budget for FY95 of $39,995 was submitted during this year. Work on Objective 4: Recovery of coded-wire tagged returning adults continued this year. Recoveries from coast wide fisheries and escapement to Klickitat hatchery are being collected and analyzed. Work on Objective 5 (data and Reports) continued this year.

FY 95:
An operations and maintenance budget for FY96 of $36,802 was submitted during this year (slightly below original budget estimates). Work on Objective 4: Recovery of coded-wire tagged returning adults and Objective 5 (data and Reports) continued.

FY 96:
An operations and maintenance budget for FY97 of $34,401 was submitted during this year (slightly below original budget estimates). Work on Objective 4: Recovery of coded-wire tagged returning adults and Objective 5 (data and Reports) continued.

Biological results achieved
All study objectives have/are being achieved. In each of 4 years, 240,000 Klickitat spring chinook were reared and released as designed. All biological sampling of juveniles was successfully carried out (gill ATp-ase, smolt status observations, bacterial kidney disease screening). Since 1992, adults and jacks have been recovered at Klickitat Hatchery and in various fisheries, the coded-wire tags recovered and data collected and reported on.

Annual reports and technical papers
To date, 6 annual and 18 quarterly reports have been submitted to BPA concerning this project. In addition, an oral presentation was given at the BPA projects review meeting in Vancouver, WA in 1993.

Management implications
The Columbia basin fish and Wildlife Program Section 203 (a) proposes and interim goal of doubling the runs of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin. As part of this effort, Section 206 (b)(1) (C) creates areas of emphasis where BPA is to focus its funding of salmon and steelhead research, which includes exploring methods for substantially increasing and improving hatchery production at existing hatcheries within the next 10 years. Subsequently, the Hatchery Effectiveness Technical Work Group identified 10 major priorities, the first of which was this project. These plans were approved by the Council in January 1988 per Measure 206 (b)(4). This project responds to Measure 703 (e)(1) and (2) which concerned improvement of fish propagation at existing facilities.

If the results prove a benefit to smolt-to-adult survival, these results could make current and future mitigation efforts more effective throughout the basin. Additionally, one advantage of rearing fish on ambient river water is speculated to be an increase in smoltification. If this proves to be true, this should reduce travel time during downstream migration and reduce inter- and intra-specific competition.

Recovery Plans: The recovery plan for the Columbia River may utilize information generated from this project. Additionally, the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) when developing or amending policies affecting hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin will review the results of this work when formulating recommendations for rearing standards within the basin.

Biological Opinions: Based on the Biological Opinion of 1993, permit number 829 was issued to WDF under the authority of the Endangered Species Act. A major concern of the Section 7 consultations and Section 10 considerations revolved around interactions between hatchery and naturally produced salmonids. Reducing interactions between both juvenile downstream migrants and returning adults is considered very important. Results of this research will apply to both questions.

Specific measureable objectives
In FY 97,98 additional adult returns will be collected at the hatchery and from the coast wide catch via the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) coded-wire tag data retrieval system. This will allow the continuation of Objective 4 (collection of coded-wire tagged adults) and 5 (data analysis and reports). I'm absolutely certain of being able to attain these objectives.

Testable hypothesis
The hypothesis remains unchanged from the original study proposal. The question remains whether fish reared on ground water have better smolt-to-adult survival than fish acclimated to ambient river water prior to release. The number of replicates in the project and the number of brood years will make the statistical test very robust. See original project study proposal for full details.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
Average smolt-to-adult survivals were assumed at the beginning of this study. This have proven not to be valid. The current trend in survivals is well below the 10 year average for this facility as well as the entire region. It is currently believed that due to the number of tags and number of replicated, we will still have valid numbers of recoveries to preform statistical analysis on at the end of this project.

Methods
GOAL: To determine if acclimation of spring chinook smolts in ambient temperature surface water prior to release will increase survival (smolts-to-adults) compared to smolts raised only on constant temperature spring water.

Objective 1: Provide Klickitat River acclimation water to the Klickitat hatchery site:

Objectives 2,3,4: Compare the performance (survival to adults) of spring chinook smolts raised in and released directly from a groundwater supplied hatchery to smolts released from the same hatchery following acclimation with the ambient tributary receiving water for a period of time before release.

Objective 5: Data Analysis and Reporting (Quarterly and Yearling Progress Reports)

The basic experimental design is a two-factor, years and treatments, analysis of variance with a third component, ponds, regard as randomized blocks. For each of four years, there was two treatments, 3-week and 6-week pre-release acclimation, plus a control. Four ponds were randomly assigned to each of these levels and 20,000 Klickitat spring chinook reared in each pond (240,000 total per year). All fish in each pond were tagged with pond specific CWT (4 ponds per treatment).

Brief schedule of activities
FY 97: An operations and maintenance budget for FY97 of $36,121 will be submitted during this year (slightly below original budget estimates). Work on Objective 4: Recovery of coded-wire tagged returning adults and Objective 5 (data and Reports) will continue.

FY 98: An operations and maintenance budget for FY98 of $37,204 will be submitted during this year (slightly below original budget estimates). Work on Objective 4: Recovery of coded-wire tagged returning adults and Objective 5 (data and Reports) will be completed.

Biological need
If the hypothesis that overall survival can be increased by pre-release acclimation proves to be true, several benefits will accrue. First, an increase in total catch and escapement can be expected with no increase in the hatchery production level. An incremental gain will be made toward the Council's goal of doubling runs entering the Columbia River. Broodstock status of klickitat spring chinook will be improved, benefiting the Council's Yakima/Klickitat Enhancement Plan. Finally, a technique will be demonstrated that can be applied at other hatcheries and release sites with similar water supply arrangements.

Critical uncertainties
Currently, there remains one critical uncertainty, that is funding for Klickitat hatchery operations. If NMFS (through Mitchell Act) funding is withdrawn from Klickitat Hatchery, the final 2 years of data collection will be lost. This will weaken the power of the statistical analysis in the study.

Summary of expected outcome
As this is a research project, the results will be analyzed objectively and the results will be applied as appropriate. If survival to adulthood is enhanced by rearing on ambient water, a number of facilities within basin (and the region) may begin altering their rearing capabilities to include this type of treatment.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
The Yakima Indian Tribe and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission are interested parties due to the effect increase smolt-to-adult survival rates would have on Zone 6 and Klickitat river harvest. Currently they have been requested to increase in-river fisheries sampling to assist in the recovery of coded-wire tags. They have not responded to this request.

Risks
None identified.

Monitoring activity
Currently, study implementation is being monitored by the project leader, and an on-site manager (located at Klickitat hatchery). Progress and status is reported both quarterly and annually to BPA. In addition, fiscal control is provided though WDFW's Accounting and Contracting Divisions.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
1989: 511,329
1990: 242,611
1991: 113,988
1992: 66,826
1993: 64,815
1994: 22,728
1995: 34,401
Obligation: 0
Authorized: 34,000
Planned: 34,000
1997: 36,121
1998: 37,204

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   System Policy

Recommendation    Tier 1 - fund

Recommended funding level   $36,121

BPA 1997 authorized budget (approved start-of-year budget)   $36,100