BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
Umatilla Hatchery - Monitoring/Eval Projects

BPA project number   9000500

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
ODFW

Sponsor type   OR-State/Local Agency

Proposal contact person or principal investigator
 NameRichard Carmichael
 Mailing address211 Inlow Hall
Eastern Oregon State College
1410 L Avenue
La Grande, OR 97850
 Phone

BPA technical contact   Jerry Bauer, EWN 503/230-7579

Biological opinion ID   Hatchery Operations - Biological Opinion

NWPPC Program number   7.4I, 7.4I.1

Short description
Evaluate effects and efficiency of compartmented raceways, rearing density and the use of supplemental oxygen on adult survival of chinook salmon and steelhead.

Project start year   1991    End year   

Start of operation and/or maintenance   

Project development phase   Maintenance

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects
1. UMATILLA HATCHERY (Project # 8403300): Umatilla Hatchery provides the majority of the production for restoring salmon and supplementing steelhead populations in the Umatilla River.

2. OUTMIGRATION STUDIES (Project # 8902401): This study evaluates the outmigration success of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids. Completion of tasks includes identifying the amount and location of juvenile mortality in the Umatilla River, success of outmigration for different rearing and release strategies, and description of their outmigration.

3. UMATILLA BASIN NATURAL PRODUCTION M & E (Project # 9000501): This study evaluates the amount and extent of salmonid natural production in the Umatilla Basin. Identification is critical to the determining the success of hatchery programs aimed at restoring and supplementing naturally producing populations.

4. MINTHORN SPRINGS CREEK SUMMER JUVENILE RELEASE & ADULT COLLECTION FACILITY (Project # 83435000): Operation and monitoring of smolts that are acclimated prior to being release in the Umatilla River. Acclimation is being used to reduce straying of Umatilla fall chinook salmon into the Snake River.

5. UMATILLA RIVER TRAP & HAUL PROGRAM (Project # 8802200): Provides low water passage of fish in the Umatilla River by trapping fish and hauling to sections of river with adequate water.

Project history
The Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation study was initiated in 1991 to assess the success of meeting restoration and management objectives for the Umatilla Basin and to evaluate new rearing methods at Umatilla Hatchery. We have completed four years of monitoring and evaluation; however, critical information on smolt-to-adult survival is incomplete. Termination of project funding would result in a significant loss of investment. Current studies include evaluating: rearing methods at design densities in standard and oxygen supplemented raceways, fish health, fisheries restoration, recreational fishing, survival, catch contribution, straying, and the effects of marking. In the future we will examine the effects of different rearing densities, acclimation, and size and time at release. Results achieved at this hatchery will have implications for production throughout the Columbia basin.

Biological results achieved
We have monitored the production of more than 4 million chinook salmon and steelhead produced at Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries each year. Results indicate that water quality, smolt quality, and smolt survival indices are similar for fish produced in high-density oxygen supplemented Michigan raceways compared to standard raceways. Subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon successfully migrate to the John Day dam. Preliminary analyses suggests slightly greater disease levels for fish reared at higher densities and in water reuse raceways. Adult return data is incomplete, but we have found similar smolt-to-adult survival rates for fish reared in Michigan and standard raceways and for fish reared in single use and reuse raceways. Restoration and supplementation goals have been partially achieved. Hatchery reared salmon and steelhead have returned to the Umatilla River, spawned, and produced naturally reared smolts. Monitoring has shown that adult fall chinook salmon from releases made into the Umatilla River stray into the Snake River system. The tagging program annually wire-tags more than 3 million fish and early results show that significant numbers of fish can be removed before straying past Lower Granite Dam. Marking studies are incomplete, but have provided valuable information on the use of body-tags as a mass mark. Tag return data shows that fish reared at Umatilla Hatchery are making a substantial contribution to commercial and recreational fishing in the Columbia basin.

Annual reports and technical papers
Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Annual Report, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995.

Straying of Umatilla Origin Fall Chinook Salmon into the Snake River (Carmichael, in press).

Management implications
Successful production of chinook salmon and steelhead at Umatilla Hatchery is critical to the restoration of salmon and supplementation of steelhead in the Umatilla Basin. Production from Umatilla Hatchery is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia basin. Restoration will provide sustainable Indian and non-Inidan harvest. Evaluation of rearing in Michigan and standard raceways can be applied to hatcheries throughout the Columbia basin. Rearing fish in high-density raceways with supplemental oxygen, if successful, will allow managers to produce more adults with less water, possibly at a lower cost. With current water and funding shortages in the basin, the results of studies at Umatilla Hatchery may be critical to salmonid restoration. Evaluation of catch contribution for groups reared at Umatilla Hatchery through creel surveys and other tag recovery programs is important for assessing the success of different rearing methods and provides valuable information on restoration efforts. Monitoring of steelhead allows us to maintain the genetic character of naturally producing populations. Assessment of stray chinook salmon into the Snake River system is required under Section 7 consultation. The inability to show improvements in stray rates could lead to major reductions in the fall chinook program.

Specific measureable objectives
Objective 1-2 Determine and compare rearing performance, smolt condition, juvenile migration performance, and smolt-to-adult survival of fall chinook salmon subyearling smolts reared in Michigan and Oregon systems at standard densities and at three densities in the "Michigan System".

Objective 3. Determine and compare stray rates of fall chinook salmon into the Snake and upper Columbia rivers for all groups of marked fall chinook salmon.

Objective 4 . Determine and compare smolt-to-adult survival of spring chinook salmon smolts reared in the "Michigan system" and the standard "Oregon system" and released in the fall.

Objective 5 . Determine and compare smolt-to-adult survival of spring chinook salmon subyearling smolts reared in the Michigan system and the standard Oregon system.

Objective 6 . Monitor rearing performance, determine smolt condition, monitor juvenile migration performance and smolt-to-adult survival of Umatilla stock summer steelhead produced in the Michigan system.

Objective 7-8 . Determine and compare smolt-to-adult survival between spring chinook salmon yearling smolts produced in Michigan and Oregon raceways and between yearlings produced at Bonneville Hatchery and Umatilla Hatchery and subyearling smolts produced at Umatilla Hatchery and compare return rates to expected survival rates.

Objective 9. Determine smolt-to-adult survival of fall chinook salmon yearling smolts reared at Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries and spring chinook salmon released in the fall that were reared at Bonneville Hatchery

Objective 10. Identify and compare the effects of tagging and marking on smolt-to-returning-adult survival of subyearling fall chinook smolts.

Objective 11. Monitor water quality parameters in an index series of Michigan and Oregon raceways in which fall and spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead are reared.

Objective 12 . Coordinate in the development of a water quality sampling and monitoring program in the Umatilla basin.

Objective 13. Determine annual recreational fishery harvest of chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Umatilla River including estimates of catch by marked group.

Objective 14. Participate in planning and coordination activities associated with anadromous fish production and monitoring and evaluation in the Umatilla basin.

Objective 15. Monitor and evaluate health of spring and fall chinook salmon and summer steelhead juveniles and adult broodstocks.

Objective 16. Complete a report of progress that summarizes results of annual work.

Testable hypothesis
1. Null: Smolt-to-adult survival rates are not significantly different between groups reared in Michigan or standard raceways, between groups reared in first, second, or third pass Michigan or Oregon raceways, or between groups reared at different densities in Michigan raceways.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in the smolt-to-adult survival rates.


2. Null: Smolt to returning adult survival of spring chinook salmon is not significantly different for yearlings produced at Bonneville Hatchery and yearlings produced at Umatilla Hatchery.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in smolt-to-adult survival rates.


3. Null: Smolt to returning adult survival is not significantly different for differentially marked or tagged fall chinook salmon subyearlings.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in smolt-to-adult survival rates.


4. Null: Adult stray rates are not significantly different for subyearling and yearling fall chinook salmon.

Alternative: There is a significant difference stray rates.


5. Null: Water quality parameters are not significantly different for groups of fish reared in Michigan and standard raceways, between groups reared in first, second, or third pass Michigan or Oregon raceways, or between groups reared at different densities in Michigan raceways.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in water quality parameters.


6. Null: Mean length, weight, growth, condition, and food conversion rates, and hatchery mortality rates are not significantly different for groups reared in Michigan and standard raceways, between groups reared in first, second, or third pass Michigan or Oregon raceways, or between groups reared at different densities in Michigan raceways.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in rearing parameters between groups.


7. Null: Stress indices are not significantly different between groups reared in at different densities in first, second, or third pass Michigan raceways.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in the stress indices between groups reared in first, second, or third pass Michigan raceways.


8. Null: Migration success and migration rate are not significantly different between groups reared in Michigan and standard raceways, between groups reared in first, second, or third pass Michigan or Oregon raceways, or between groups reared at different densities in Michigan raceways.

Alternative: There is a significant difference in the migration success and migration rate.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
1. Water supplies at Umatilla Hatchery - Water shortages at Umatilla Hatchery have caused us to alter or delay some studies. Production at current levels is required to complete planned experiments.

2. Spring chinook salmon brood stock - The current supply of spring chinook salmon eggs may cause program modifications. Studies may need to be altered or delayed.

3. Recovery and analysis of adult return data for groups already released is essential for accomplishing objectives.

Methods
Experimental design:

1. Uncertainties should be evaluated in priority order.

2. Each treatment should be replicated twice within a year, preferably, three or four times.

3. Each treatment should be replicated for four years to ensure that performances are observed under a variety of environmental conditions. This should allow us to distinguish a minimum of 50% difference among treatments with 95% certainty.

4. At least one treatment (rearing and release strategy) for each species must be used as the standard control and maintained through time.

5. To minimize variation we require 35 observed mark recoveries per test group. This should give a coefficient of variation for smolt-to-adult survival rate of 0.25.

6. The same species must be reared in a raceway series where water is reused and each pass must be considered a separate treatment because of potential differences in water quality as water is modified by the degree of reuse.

7. To estimate the recreational fishery, all weekend and holiday dates are sampled. Weekday samples are randomly selected. Pressure counts are made three times each day. Anglers are interviewed in-between pressure counts.

8. To evaluate straying rates, coded-wire tag recoveries from completed brood years are used. Recovery information for marked Umatilla fish from all locations in the Columbia basin will be summarized to evaluate straying.


Equipment: Water quality is monitored with a gas pressure meter, pH meter, and chemical tests. Monthly fish monitoring and smolt condition information is entered directly into computer files via a digitizing pad. Stress indices are monitored using blood collection equipment, a centrifuge, and sent to a contractor for analyses. Fish are marked with fin clips, wire tags, and cold brands. PITTAG methodology will be implemented as downstream data collection sites are installed. Fish release data is summarized from hatchery and PSMFC records.

Statistical Analysis: ANOVA tests are used to compare testable hypotheses at the 95% confidence level. Non-parametric tests are substituted when necessary. Non-testable data is summarized or compared graphically. Creel survey information is analyzed with an ODFW creel survey program. All tests are reviewed by an ODFW statistician.

Type and number of fish to be used:

Type Age Number of raceways Total number
Fall chinook salmon 0 9 2,700,000
Fall chinook salmon 1 6 300.,000
Spring chinook salmon 1 4 200,000
Steelhead 1 3 150,000

Lengths - 300 fish per raceway
Weights - 100 fish per raceway
Descaling/Fin condition - 200 fish per raceway
Stress Indices - 10 fish per raceway
Brands - 5,000 to 10,000 fish per raceway
Coded-wire tags - 20,000 to 30,000 fish per raceway
Blank-wire tags - 200,000 to 400,000 per raceway (fall chinook only)

Brief schedule of activities
1. Acquire CWT recovery information from all agencies.
2. Sample test raceways monthly to determine rearing parameters.
3. Sample fish from all raceways at release to determine smolt length, weight, condition, and smolt quality.
4. Freeze brand fish from all raceways and acquire recovery information to evaluate migration.
5. Wire tag or fin mark fish from all raceways.
6. Compare stray rates of Umatilla fall chinook salmon.
7. Monitor water quality in a series of index raceways.
8. Identify and monitor recreational fishing to estimate effort, catch, and harvest.
9. Participate in technical work groups to ensure sampling needs are met.
10. Perform monthly and release fish health examinations.
11. Recommend prophylactic disease control measures.
12. Write and submit annual report.

Biological need
Monitoring and evaluation of the hatchery are essential to the adaptive management process that guides the rehabilitation of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla basin. The adaptive management process uses monitoring and evaluation to increase knowledge about the uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation program and will compliment the developing systemwide monitoring and evaluation program.

Biological need and priorities were established based on their effect on achievement of program goals and the systemwide application of results. At present there is limited natural reproduction of fall or spring chinook salmon in the basin, however the success of restoration efforts, to a large extent will be determined by the success of the hatchery program. A substantial proportion of the production at Umatilla Hatchery is produced in the "Michigan Type" oxygen supplementation system. This rearing system has not been thoroughly evaluated to determine the effects on smolt-to-adult survival. Disease monitoring and evaluation is a also critical component of the evaluation. Long-range plans include evaluation of the benefits of acclimation and effects of different sizes at release.

Critical uncertainties
Primary
1. Can fish return goals to Threemile Falls Dam be achieved using hatchery production and supplementation?

2. To what extent can we use O2 supplementation during rearing to increase the efficiency of producing summer steelhead and fall chinook for hatchery and natural production?

3. Will releases of subyearling and yearling spring chinook smolts produced at Umatilla Hatchery achieve the desire level of adult production?

4. To what extent can we use O2 supplementation during rearing to increase the efficiency of producing spring chinook adults for hatchery and natural production.

5. Will returning adult fall chinook salmon from releases made in the Umatilla River stray beyond acceptable limits into the Snake River system?

6. To what extent are harvest objectives being achieved?

Secondary:
1. To what extent will acclimation of summer steelhead, fall chinook, and spring chinook smolts enhance smolt-to-adult survival and homing.

2. To what extent will rearing density influence efficiency of producing summer steelhead, fall chinook, and spring chinook adults in the standard and O2 supplementation systems.

Summary of expected outcome
Results of experiments will be used under the adaptive management guidelines to improve the efficiency and success of rearing systems. Improvements made to hatchery programs by using information gained from monitoring and evaluation studies will assist in reaching restoration goals for the Umatilla River and doubling goals in the Columbia basin.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
1. Umatilla fall chinook salmon stray into the Snake River system and mix with listed stocks. If straying is not reduced, program modifications may be required through consultation with NMFS.

2. Drawdown of the John Day pool would reduce the amount of well water available to Umatilla Hatchery and could cause major program modifications.

Risks
1. Straying of Umatilla fall chinook salmon may threaten endangered Snake River salmon.

2. Supplementation with hatchery steelhead may threaten native Umatilla River stocks.

Monitoring activity
Monitoring activities are planned through the year 2003.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
1991: 517,073
1992: 0
1993: 563,416
1994: 602,555
1995: 582,260
1996: 545,003
Obligation: 545,003
Authorized: 544,000
Planned: 545,003
1997: 545,000
1998: 577,700
1999: 612,362
2000: 649,104
2001: 688,050

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   Bonneville Dam - Priest Rapids Dam

Recommendation    Tier 1 - fund

Recommended funding level   $545,000

BPA 1997 authorized budget (approved start-of-year budget)   $633,000