BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive

BPA project number   9107200

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
IDFG

Sponsor type   ID-State/Local Agency

Proposal contact person or principal investigator
 NameSteve Huffaker/Al Van Vooren
 Mailing addressIdaho Department of Fish and Game
P.O. Box 25
Boise, ID 83707
 Phone208/334-3791

BPA technical contact   Jeff Gislason, EWN 503/230-3594

Biological opinion ID   NMFS

NWPPC Program number   7.5A.1

Short description
Establish captive broodstocks of Redfish Lake sockeye salmon, grow to maturity, produce progeny for release to Redfish and other Stanley Basin lakes. Monitor sockeye/kokanee populations, evaluate smolt outmigration by release strategy and lineage.

Project start year   1991    End year   

Start of operation and/or maintenance   

Project development phase   Implementation

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects
91-71 - Habitat evaluation and improvement by Shoshone Bannock Tribes. Nursery lake fertilization studies and evaluation. Predator/prey relationships. Lake population monitoring.
92-40 - Redrish Lake captive broodstock research and rearing by NMFS. Duplicate broodstock rearing site for the production of eggs and progeny. Research conducted on broodstock rearing techniques. Broodstock genetic sampling.
90-93 - Genetic analysis of 0. nerka by University of Idaho. DNA genetic analysis of broodstock with outmigrant life history to reduce potential of incorporating kokanee genetics in spawning design.

Project history
Broodstocks established from Redrish Lake outmigrant smolts (1991, 1992, and 1993), from returning anadromous adults (1991, 1993, and 1994), and from Redrish Lake residual sockeye (1992 and 1993). Anadromous progeny, residual progeny, and wild outmigrants reared to maturity at

IIDFG's Eagle Hatchery (and partially at NMFS's Manchester facility). Maturation occurred in 1993, 1994, and 1995. Broodstocks continue to be cultured. Genetically defined progeny released to Redrish Lake in 1994 (-12,000) and 1995 (-84,000), and to Pettit Lake in 1995 (-S,500). Progeny were also released directly to Redrish Lake Creek in 1995 (-3,500). Evaluation of smolt outmigration success by release strategy and broodstock lineage began in 1995. Modifications to IIDFG's Eagle Hatchery completed (1991-1995) to accommodate the broodstock program.

Biological results achieved
1993 -Twenty-four adult broodstock sockeye salmon released to spawn volitionally in Redrish Lake.

1994 -Approximately 12,000 brood year 1993 sockeye salmon juveniles released to Redrish Lake primarily from net pens. Eggs shared with NMFS. Sixty-rive adult broodstock sockeye salmon released to spawn volitionally in Redrish Lake.

1995 -Approximately 84,000 brood year 1994 sockeye salmon juveniles released to Redrish Lake from three release strategies. Approximately 3,500 age 1+ sockeye salmon released to Redrish Lake Creek. Approximately 8,500 sockeye salmon juveniles released to Pettit Lake. Eggs shared with NMFS. A portion of the 1995 supplementation resulted from eggs brought from NMFS to Eagle Hatchery for rearing.

1996 -Approximately 2,600 brood year 1995 broodstock progeny rearing for release to Redrish Lake.

Sockeye/kokanee population, density, and biomass data collected for four basin lakes since 1991. Smolt outmigration estimates prepared for Redfish and Alturas lakes since 1991. Environmental life history traced for wild and broodstock 0. nerka using otolith microchemistry.

Annual reports and technical papers
CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK
1992 Annual Report (DE-Bl79-91BP21065-1)
1993 Annual Report (DE-Bl79-91BP21065-2)
1994 Annual Report (DE-Bl79-91BP21065-3)
1995 Annual Report (DE-Bl79-91BP21065-4, Draft)

Flagg, T.A., C.V.W. Manhken, and KA. Johnson. 1995. Captive broodstocks for recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 15:81-90.
Siri, P., and K. Johnson. 1995. Maturation and reproduction in salmonid captive breeding programs. Aquaculture, 135: 217-218.

EVALUATION RESEARCH
1994 Annual Report (DE-BI79-91BP21065, November 1993) 1995 Annual Report (DE-Bl79-91BP21065, August 1994)

Management implications
This project develops baseline population and outmigration data for Snake River sockeye salmon critical to the development of management options for this species. Project captive broodstock and outmigration evaluation efforts are now guiding species adaptive management in the state of Idaho. Sockeye salmon captive broodstock and rearing methods developed on this project will provide the technical foundation for future endangered species recovery in the pacific northwest. One program activity has directly affected resident fisheries management through the re-opening of a kokanee fishing season on Redrish Lake. The fishery was instituted in 1995 (and planned to continue in 1996 and beyond) as a means of partially controlling the kokanee population that directly competes with supplementation sockeye salmon for rearing space and food resources.

Specific measureable objectives
1. Determine survival, maturation rates, age-at-maturity, sex ratio, and gamete quality for eight sockeye salmon broodstocks in captivity.
2. Produce genetically defined progeny for supplementation to Redrish Lake and other Stanley Basin lakes using different release strategies.
3. Determine if time on chilled water for broodstock adults reared at Eagle Hatchery affects gamete quality, fertilization rates, and anomalies in progeny. Compare with NMFS rearing results.
4. Compare age-at-maturity, maturation rate, gamete quality, and performance for brood year 1994 broodstocks reared at two growth rates.
5. Establish sperm cryopreservation at Eagle Hatchery and compare results with University of Idaho and Washington State University.
6. Examine whether classical levels for minimum population number will prevent the ability of broodstocks established in this program to recover Snake River sockeye salmon.
7. Develop sound 0. nerka population, density, and biomass trend data for Stanley Basin sockeye salmon and kokanee nursery lakes.
8. Determine whether broodstock supplementation progeny are contributing to recovery efforts.
9. Determine whether broodstock adults released to spawn volitionally in Redrish Lake are contributing to recovery efforts.
10. Determine the origin of Stanley Basin 0. nerka.

Testable hypothesis
1.1 Survival, maturation rate, age-at-maturity, sex ratio, and gamete quality will not differ significantly for eight, genetically distinct broodstocks.
3.1. Adults held on chilled water (100C) approximately three months prior to spawning will exhibit statistically indifferent gamete quality, fertilization rates, and percent anomaly rates from broodstock adults held on chilled water (IOOC) approximately six months prior to

.spawning and from broodstock adults reared on constant IOOC water by NMFS.
4.1. Growth rate (accelerated vs. retarded) for brood year 1994 broodstocks will not affect age-at maturity, maturation rate, gamete quality, or performance.
5.1. Sperm cryopreserved at Eagle Hatchery will fertilize kokanee eggs at the same rate as sperm cryopreserved at the University of Idaho and Washington State University.
7.1. Survival and growth of overwintering supplementation progeny in Redrish Lake will be significantly higher in years following whole lake fertilization.
8.1, 2.1. Post-release growth and survival of Redfish Lake broodstock progeny will not differ
significantly as a function of release strategy or broodstock lineage.
8.2, 2.2. Outmigration success of Redrish Lake broodstock progeny to Redrish Lake Creek weir will
not differ significantly as a function of broodstock lineage or release strategy.
8.3, 2.3. Cumulative unique, first observation interrogations of broodstock progeny between
Lower Granite and McNary dams will not differ significantly as a function of release
strategy or broodstock lineage.
9.1. Survival and spawning success of adult broodstock 0. nerka released to volitionally spawn in Redrish Lake will not differ significantly as a function of broodstock lineage.
10.1. Otolith microchemistry strontium/calcium ratios can be used to identify environmental life history of wild and broodstock 0. nerka.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
Smolt-to-adult return rates will improve and allow recovery goals (as set forth in the Draft Snake River Salmon Recovery Plan NMFS) to be met. Genetic characteristics of anadromous sockeye salmon can be preserved for at least a limited time through the use of captive broodstock technology. Adults with broodstock lineage that return to spawn in Redfish Lake and other Stanley Basin lakes will locate historic spawning locations. Increasing the number of juvenile 0. nerka through supplementation to Stanley Basin lakes will increase the number of outmigrants. Genetic "bottlenecks" associated to critical founding population size for captive broodstock remain uncertain.

Methods
Broodstock fish history is tracked using PIT tags. Eggs produced at spawning are divided into as many as. six lots (per female) and fertilized with sperm from multiple males. 'Eggs are incubated by lot at different water temperatures to yield lineage-specific size groups for release under different strategies. All-broodstock progeny destined for release are adipose fin-clipped. Experimental design is to determine whether broodstock lineage or release strategy is critical to the outmigration success of broodstock program supplementation 0. nerka released as juveniles to Stanley Basin waters. Through adaptive management, experimental results will be incorporated in the program to increase success. Stanley Basin 0 nerka populations have been monitored by midwater trawl and dual beam hydroacoustics since 1991. These data provide the background for interpreting sockeye/kokanee population stability and whole lake fertilization effectiveness (Redrish Lake only). Smolt outmigration from Redfish and Alturas lakes has been monitored since 1991. Pettit Lake outmigration monitoring will begin in 1996. Data collected at outmigrant weirs is used for 0 comparing outmigration success for broodstock supplementation progeny by broodstock lineage and release strategy. Non-parametric statistics will be used to compare outmigration success of broodstock supplementation progeny. Parametric statistics will be used to compare 0- . nerka growth and size under pre and post-fertilization conditions.

Brief schedule of activities
Captive broodstock culture is ongoing and will continue through 1998. Broodstock maturation and spawning will occur during October and November for years: 1996, 1997, and 1998. Incubation and rearing of-broodstock progeny is ongoing and will continue through April 1999. Broodstock progeny releases to Stanley Basin waters (net pens, direct lake, and direct creek) is ongoing and will continue through 1999. Midwater trawling will continue on four Stanley Basin lakes during the new moon phase in June, September and October. Outmigrant smolt monitoring will be conducted from mid-April to mid-June on the outlets of Redrish and Pettit lakes and on the Salmon River at the Sawtooth Hatchery. Adult sockeye salmon trapping on Redrish Lake Creek and on the Salmon River at the Sawtooth Hatchery will continue each year. Outmigration evaluations will continue each year.

Biological need
Precipitous declines in Snake River sockeye salmon populations lead to their federal listing as endangered in 1991. Captive broodstock efforts represent the only immediate method of preserving this species while long term solutions are sought. Since 1991, all returning anadromous adult sockeye salmon have been taken into the broodstock program and used to establish captive broodstocks. Progeny from wild adults and outmigrants have been used to supplement natural production for the past two years. Recovery depends on the performance of these few fish and on improvements in survival through the migratory corridor.

Critical uncertainties
Outmigration success of broodstock-produced progeny and smolt-to-adult return rates may not be adequate to achieve NMFS draft recovery goals.

Summary of expected outcome
Numbers refer to testable hypothesis:
1.1a. Survival and maturation rate will be higher for broodstocks reared from eggs.
1.1b. Sex ratios will vary and favor males in broodstocks originating from residual sockeye salmon parents.
1.1c. Time of maturation of captive broodstocks will vary widely.
3.1. Gamete quality and fertilization rate will improve for adults held on chilled water (IOOC) at Eagle Hatchery.
3.1b. Adults shifted to IOOC water in December and May (10 and 5 'months prior to maturation) will produce gametes of equal quality and performance.
4.1. A slowing of growth rate beginning at nine months of age will not affect age at maturation of broodstock fish.
5.1. Cryoproserved sperm will not fertilize eggs at the same rate as fresh sperm.
5.1b. Cryopreserved sperm from University of Idaho, Washington State University, and Eagle Hatchery sites will fertilize eggs at the same rate.
7.1. Whole lake fertilization of Redfish Lake will improve growth, over winter survival and outmigration rate of supplementation progeny.
8.1a,2.1a. F1 progeny produced from anadromous adults will perform better than progeny produced from residuals, outmigrants, or F1 broodstock adults
8.1b,2.1b. Progeny of residual broodstocks can be used for recovery but not as effectively as progeny of anadromous and outmigrant broodstock.
10.1. Otolith microchemistry can be used to determine environmental life history of wild and hatchery broodstocks.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
SHOSHONE BANNOCK TRIBES - Will continue to:
Fertilize Redrish Lake and conduct limnology monitoring of Stanley Basin lakes.
Monitor kokanee fry recruitment to Stanley Basin lakes.
Cooperate on the estimation of 0. nerka predators in Stanley Basin lakes.
Cooperate on kokanee reduction in Redrish Lake and Fishhook Creek.
Monitor Stanley Basin lake 0. nerka populations with hydroacoustic sampling.

UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO - Will continue to:
Conduct DNA analysis and sperm cryopreservation and holding.

NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE - will continue to:
Rear broodstocks and provide eggs to Eagle Hatchery.
Conduct genetic analysis of broodstock and wild 0. nerka.
Cooperate on permit process for this and related activities.

UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE - will continue to:
Provide permitted access and conditional use for sites associated with field activities.

IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY - will continue to:
Permit net pen and fertilization activities in Redfish Lake.

Risks
One potential risk is that broodstock supplementation progeny released to Stanley Basin lakes will contribute to the over consumption of available food resources. Project safeguards to guard against this occurring include: 1) development and adherence-to carrying capacity guidelines for Stanley Basin lakes, 2) comprehensive population monitoring and interpretation, 3) whole lake fertilization of the principal supplementation lake (Redrish Lake), and 4) partial kokanee control in Redrish Lake. One additional risk is that limited founding genetics to the broodstock program will result in higher than desirable rates of genetic anomalies in progeny and poor performance by release groups.

Monitoring activity
Trawling and hydroacoustics will be used to monitor 0. nerka population, density, and biomass in four Stanley Basin lakes. Outmigrant weirs on Pettit Lake Creek, Redrish Lake Creek, and on the Salmon River at the Sawtooth Hatchery will be used to monitor outmigration from Pettit, Redrish, and Alturas lakes. PIT tag interrogation systems at Lower Snake and Columbia river dams will be used to monitor travel time and minimum mainstem survival. Telemetry and snorkeling will be used to monitor adult broodstock releases to Redrish Lake. Snorkeling and boat surveys will be used to monitor beach-spawning by residual sockeye salmon in Redrish Lake. Diving will be used to monitor net pen fish status in Redrish Lake. Standard fish health accessions will be used to monitor broodstock fish health at the Eagle Hatchery.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
1991: 529,673
1992: 400,185
1993: 1,007,388
1994: 813,047
1995: 654,899
Obligation: 0
Authorized: 612,331
Planned: 612,331
1997: 663,000
1998: 700,000
1999: 700,000
2000: 500,000
2001: 500,000

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   Snake River

Recommendation    Tier 1 - fund

Recommended funding level   $663,000

BPA 1997 authorized budget (approved start-of-year budget)   $663,000