FY 2007 Solicitation Homepage

Project Proposal Request for FY 2007 - FY 2009 Funding

Proposal 199501100: Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement

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Table of Contents
Part 1. Administration and Budgeting
Section 1: General Administrative
Section 2: Project Location
Section 3: Project Species
Section 4: Past Accomplishments
Section 5: Relationship to Other Projects
Section 6: Biological Objectives
Section 7: Work Elements
Section 8: Budget
Section 9: Project Future
Section 10: Documents
Part 2. Reviews
Part 1 of 2. Administration and Budgeting
Section 1: General Administrative Information
Process Information:
Date Proposal Submitted & Finalized Status Form Generator
January 10, 2006 Finalized Richard LeCaire

Proposal Type: Ongoing
Proposal Number: 199501100
Proposal Name: Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement
BPA Project Manager: Tracy Hauser
Agency, Institution or Organization: Colville Confederated Tribes
Short Description: Ongoing project to assess status and interaction of wild origin kokanee in the blocked area. Enhance wild kokanee using fry plants, spawning channel, and instream egg plants. Conduct limited feasibility stiudies regarding egg take and spawning channels.
Information Transfer: Stock status data (Adult enumeration) will be shared among Lake Roosevelt fishery managers to guide fish management actions for the future. Annual reports will be generated electronically to funding agency and shared with others upon request.
 
Project Proposal Contacts
Contact Organization Address Phone/Email Roles Notes
Form Submitter
Richard LeCaire Colville Confederated tribes POBox 150
Nespelem WA, 99155
Ph: 509-722-7619
Fax: 509-722-7682
Email: richard.lecaire@colvilletribes.com
Form Submitter
All Assigned Contacts
Richard LeCaire Colville Confederated tribes POBox 150
Nespelem WA, 99155
Ph: 509-722-7619
Fax: 509-722-7682
Email: richard.lecaire@colvilletribes.com
Form Submitter

Section 2: Project Location
Sponsor Province: None Selected ARG Province: Intermountain
Sponsor Subbasin: None Selected ARG Subbasin: Columbia Upper
Location(s) at which the action will be implemented
Latitude Longitude Waterbody Location Description County/State Subbasin Primary?
48 56" 117 48" Lake Roosevelt Big sheep Creek Stevens, Washington Columbia Upper Yes
47 59" 118 47 Lake Roosevelt San poil River mouth Ferry, Washington Sanpoil Yes
48 7' 50" 119 2' 37" Lake Rufus Woods Little Nespelem River Okanogan, Washington None Selected Yes

Section 3: Focal Species
Focal Species:
Primary Secondary Additional Species
Kokanee

Section 4: Past Accomplishments
Past Accomplishments for Each Fiscal Year of This Project
Fiscal Year Accomplishments
2005 Purchased 4 omni directional strobe lights and deployed atsingle turbine intake.Completed genetic sample collection. Completed adult enumeration usiing new trap design.Began project solitication for 2007-2009. Completed access work at Bridge and 30-mile.
2004 Completed strobe light testing using directional strobe lights. No firm conclusion. Complewted all other project goals and objectives.Introduced fingertling kokanee into Big Sheep Creek. Laid ground work for sunsequent monitoring of return
2003 Completed another sample season re: strobe light efficacy. No positive reaction yet identified due to limited ata collection and analysis. Co,mpleted all other pertinent project objectives and goals
2002 Purchased three additional strobe lights and revamped test strategy for strobe lights.Continued to collect genetic samples and document adult stock strength. Conducted foot surveys, boat surveys.
2001 Began strobe light efficacy testing in mid forebay at 3rd power plant using a three light array. Conducted usual project enumeration and genetic sampling. Accepted report documenting 7 distinct kokanee stocks in blocked area.
2000 Identified several genetic stocks in the blocked area. Changes assessment to reflect micro-satelliter DNA analysis. Completed report regarding entrainment, Began wotk leading to strobe light efficacy testing.
1999 Completed acoustic survey and concluded entraimnent to be substantial, identifies power plant and power peaking operation as responsible for high entrainment.Continued with all other project work elements.
1998 Continued with contracted acoustic entrainment work and gillnet survey as well as annual adult recruitment work and genetic sample procurement. Received initial samples from British Columbia tributaries and Kootenai Lake
1997 Contracted Uof M to conduct protein analysis of genetic samples. Continued with acoustic entrainment assessment and gill net study at Grand Coulee. Continued with adult enumeration at select streams, conducted foot and canoe surveys, collected genetic sam
1996 Hired subcontractor and began acoustic assessment of entrainment at 14 0f 24 turbine intakes. Hired contractor to conduct gill net survey of fish species present in forebay area. Conducted gill net survey, adult enumeration an began genetic sampling.
1995 Hired Biologist, completed literature search regarding genetics, adult enumeration, sampling techniques, acoustic evaluation technologies. Selected acoustic contractor based on available funding and performance capability.

Section 5: Relationships to Other Projects
Other Current Projects Related to this Project (any funding source)
Funding Source Related ID Related Project Title Relationship
BPA 199001800 Rainbow Tr Hab/Pass Impr Prog Work closely with project personnel. Share data collection duties. Help wiht funding issues. Work completed for one species benefits and enhances the other species
BPA 199404300 Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Entrainment, adult recruitment data, genetic analysis results all shared with LRFEP. Manpower considerations for creel census.
BPA 200106600 Restore Lake Roosevelt Fish Provided majority of manpowewr to accomplish goals and objectives of this project. Developed and administered budget.

Section 6: Biological Objectives
Biological Objectives of this Proposed Project
Biological Objective Full Description Associated Subbasin Plan Strategy Page Nos
Evaluate Hydropower Impacts 1A1Continue to evaluate hydropower impacts to native and focal species. Implement strategies to reduce impacts. (Priority 7) Intermountain Strategies, a,b,c &d 6
Evaluate Hydropower Impacts 1A5, Continue to evaluate hydropower impacts to native and focal species. Implement strategies to reduce impacts. (Priority 7) Intermountain Strategies c&d 7
Protect and restore in-stream and riparian habitat 1B5, Improve or maintain streambed embeddedness between 20 percent and 30 percent in all streams with known salmonid populations. (Priority 11) Intermountain Strategies, a &d 10
Protect and restore instream and riparian to maint 1B1,Restore connectivity of salmonid habitat as appropriate by 2015. (Priority 10) Intermountain Strategies,c&e 8
Provide sufficient populations of fish and wildlif Province Level Objective 2C1: Artificially produce sufficient salmonids to supplement consistent harvest to meet management objectives. Province Level Objective 2C2: Provide both short- and long-term harvest opportunities that support both subsistence activities and sport-angler harvest.2C1: Artificially produce enough fish to supplement consistent harvest to meet state and tribal management objectives. (Priority 6) Intermountain Strategies a, b, d, e &f. 14
Restore connectivity of salmonid habitat as approp 1B2, Begin implementation of habitat strategies for addressing identified limiting factors for all focal species and native fishes by 2005. (Priority 1) Intermountain Stratefies, f &k 8
Restore resident fish 2A1: Protect the genetic integrity of all focal and native fish species throughout the Subbasin. (Priority 2) 2A2: Maintain, restore, and enhance wild populations of native fish, and subsistence species to provide for harvestable surplus. (Priority 3) Intermountain For 2A1, Strategies a, b, c, and d. For 2A2, Strategies a, b, c, d, & e 13
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks Protect, enhance, restore, and increase distribution of native resident fish populations and their habitats in the IMP with primary emphasis on sensitive, native salmonid stocks.Province Level Objective 1C6: Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks and populations) to near historic abundance throughout their historic ranges where suitable habitat conditions exist and/or where habitats can be restored. Province Level Objective 1C2: Maintain and enhance self-sustaining, wild populations of native game fish, and subsistence species, to provide for harvestable surplus. Province Level Objective 1C3: Minimize negative impacts (competition, predation, introgression) to native species from nonnative species and stocks. Intermountain Substitute for anadromous fish losses. 12
Substitute for anadromous fish losses Province Level Objective 2A1: Protect, enhance, restore, and increase distribution of native resident fish populations and their habitats in the IMP with primary emphasis on sensitive, native salmonid stocks. Province Level Objective 2A2: Maintain and enhance self-sustaining, wild populations of native game fish, and subsistence species, to provide for harvestable surplus. Province Level Objective 2A3: Minimize negative impacts (competition, predation, introgression) to native species from nonnative species and stocks. Province Level Objective 2A4: Increase cooperation and coordination among stakeholders throughout the province. Intermountain As listed in the objective description. 13

Section 7: Work Elements
Work Elements and Associated Biological Objectives
Work Element Name Work Element Title Description Start Date End Date Estimated Budget
Produce Environmental Compliance Documentation NEPA Comply with NEPA requirement through contract with BPA NEPA compliance officer. 10/1/2007 10/15/2007 $ 0
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Realign, Connect, and/or Create Channel Nespelem River Spawning Channel Construct a spawning channel at Nespelem River based on positive results from the feasibility study 10/1/2007 9/30/2009 $75,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
* # of stream miles before treatment: Create 600 ft of spawning habitat

Realign, Connect, and/or Create Channel Spawning Habitat Improvement Provide for adult kokanee passage at the mouth of Barnaby Creek as per the specificions determined by feasibility study. 7/1/2008 10/30/2008 $100,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore connectivity of salmonid habitat as approp
* # of stream miles treated, including off-channels, after realignment: provide 0.75 miles of spawning habitat

Install Fish Passage Structure Habitat Improvement Install fish passage facility at Barnaby Creek following favorable findings by feasibility study. 7/15/2008 10/1/2009 $150,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Protect and restore in-stream and riparian habitat
Protect and restore instream and riparian to maint
* # of miles of habitat accessed: 0.75 miles of spawning habitat accessed

Coordination Coordination Meet with regional fish managers to plan and coordinate project activities to prevent dual efforts 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $45,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Coordination Coordination with other BPA projects and hatcheries Meet with other BPA funded projects to coordinate project efforts and potentailly share costs etc 10/1/2007 9/30/2009 $36,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Manage and Administer Projects Project Administration Administrate project, supervisr personnel, track budget expenses, develop work schedules, generate P.O.'s assist with personnel needa as needed 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $46,976
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Manage and Administer Projects Project Management Develop SOWs, generate annual reports, edit reports make project presentation to regional forums several times per year (Quarterly) 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $36,150
Biological Objectives Metrics
No Metrics for this Work Element

Outreach and Education Local and regional information exchange Present project objectives, findings to local schools and other interested parties to include the Lake Roosevelt Forum. This will occur periodically on a twice per year minimum 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $9,900
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
* # of students reached: Present project to school classes on 2 occassions
* # of students reached: Present project to school classes on 2 occassions

Produce Design and/or Specifications Kokanee hatchery supplementation program Develop a master plan for a hatchery supplementation program designed to increase the production of Blocked Area, natural origin kokanee with emphasis on San Poil River & upper mainstem Columbia. 10/1/2006 2/28/2008 $125,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Design and/or Specifications Spawning channel feasibility Conduct a feasibility study of constructing a kokanee spawning channel in the Nespelem River 10/1/2006 1/31/2008 $50,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Provide sufficient populations of fish and wildlif
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Design and/or Specifications Spawning channel feasibility Conduct a spawning channel feasibility study for the construction of a kokanee spawning channel on Gold Creek 10/1/2006 7/15/2008 $70,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Provide sufficient populations of fish and wildlif
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Inventory or Assessment Characterization of Potential Lakeshore Spawning Habitat Conduct survey to determine the location, suitability and utilization of deep water kokanee spawning sites along Lake Roosevelt. 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $500,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Evaluate Hydropower Impacts
Protect and restore instream and riparian to maint
Provide sufficient populations of fish and wildlif
Restore resident fish
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Plan Fish passage facility at Barnaby Creek Develop the design and engineering required to construct a fish passage facility at Barnaby creek 10/1/2006 2/15/2008 $50,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore connectivity of salmonid habitat as approp
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Plan Investigate the feasibility of developing kokanee spawning channels Conduct a feasibility study for locating spawning channels at the mouth of Nespelem River and at the confluence of Gold Creek and West Fork San Poil River 10/1/2006 9/15/2008 $100,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Annual Report Annual report submitted to BPA Produce draft annual report for fy 2006 by 3/1/07 10/1/2006 3/1/2010 $16,680
Biological Objectives Metrics
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Annual Report Annual Reporting Edit draft and submit to BPA for publication and sharing with stakeholders 3/2/2007 6/15/2010 $16,680
Biological Objectives Metrics
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Status Report Progress Reports Provide status report to BPA on a quarterly basis 1/6/2007 10/30/2009 $16,680
Biological Objectives Metrics
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce Status Report Status Reporting Produce status reports as needed. 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $16,680
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Produce/Submit Scientific Findings Report Scientific Findings Reporting Generate report of scientific findings obtained during all phases of project as part of the annual report to BPA 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $112,500
Biological Objectives Metrics
Substitute for anadromous fish losses
No Metrics for this Work Element

Analyze/Interpret Data Data Processing and Analysis Complete the anlaysis of ethanol preserved adult kokane tissue samples and the final report on wild origin kokanee genetic tree of Lake Roosevelt 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $75,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
No Metrics for this Work Element

Analyze/Interpret Data Genetic Evaluation Following receipt of report from WDFW; write final report regarding genetic discription and potential interactions of all possible kokane stocks from Lake Roosevelt and Rufus Woods reservoir (Blocked Area). 6/15/2007 12/15/2007 $14,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
No Metrics for this Work Element

Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data Collect Data Collect data from adult enumeration, genetics work and validate 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $42,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
No Metrics for this Work Element

Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data Install Fish Monitoring Equipment Install Fish monitoring equipment at Big Sheep Creek and San Poil River 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $22,500
Biological Objectives Metrics
Restore resident fish species (subspecies, stocks
Primary R, M, and E Type: Status and trend monitoring
Primary R, M, and E Type: Collect compile spawner enumeration and escapement
Primary R, M, and E Type: status and trend monitoring

Collect/Generate/Validate Field and Lab Data Kokanee Spawning ground surveys Conduct foot and vehicle surveys (Canoe or boat) on select Lake Roosevelt and Rufus Woods reservoir tributaries 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $36,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Provide sufficient populations of fish and wildlif
No Metrics for this Work Element

Create/Manage/Maintain Database Database Management Create data base regarding spawning escapement in select tributaries 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $36,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
No Metrics for this Work Element

Install Fish Monitoring Equipment Big Sheep Creek fish weir Install and maintain a fish weir at Big Sheep Creek 10/1/2006 9/30/2009 $22,500
Biological Objectives Metrics
Evaluate Hydropower Impacts
No Metrics for this Work Element

Install Fish Monitoring Equipment Spawning Ecapement Enumeration Weirs Install adult enumeration weirs at Big Sheep Creek and San Popil River 7/30/2007 11/30/2007 $60,000
Biological Objectives Metrics
Evaluate Hydropower Impacts
No Metrics for this Work Element


Section 8: Budget

Itemized Estimated Budget
Item Note FY 2007 Cost FY 2008 Cost FY 2009 Cost
Personnel 5.12 personnel $199,420 $199,420 $199,420
Fringe Benefits [blank] $41,095 $41,095 $41,095
Travel per diem, fees, vehicle expense etc $31,773 $31,773 $31,773
Supplies Office and field supplies and computer $22,273 $19,113 $22,273
Capital Equipment Fish passage facility and install $ 0 $85,000 $ 0
Overhead Indirect calculated by spreadsheet $75,241 $75,241 $75,241
Other subcontracts, studies $230,000 $230,000 $230,000
Totals $599,802 $681,642 $599,802

Total Estimated FY 2007-2009 Budgets
Total Itemized Budget$1,881,246
Total Work Element budget$1,881,246

Cost sharing
Funding Source or Organization Item or Service Provided FY 2007 Est Value ($) FY 2008 Est Value ($) FY 2009 Est Value ($) Cash or in-kind? Status

Section 9: Project Future
Project Future Costs and/or Termination
FY 2010 Est Budget FY 2011 Est Budget Comments
$700,000 $700,000 Asumes kokanee hatchery supplementation costs
Future Operations & Maintenance Costs
 
Termination Date Comments
 
Final Deliverables

Section 10: Narrative
Document Type Size Date

Part 2 of 2. Reviews of Proposal
Administrative Review Group (ARG) Results
Account Type:
Expense
Location:
Province: Intermountain
Subbasin: Columbia Upper
Primary Focal Species
No Change
ARG Comments:


NPCC Final Funding Recommendations (October 23, 2006) [Full NPCC Council Recs]

FY 2007 Budget
$512,871
FY 2008 Budget
$512,871
FY 2009 Budget
$512,871
Total NPCC Rec
$1,538,613
Budget Type:Expense
Budget Category:ProvinceExpense
Recommendation:Fund
Comments: ISRP fund in part: funding continues but part of funding contingent on outcome of a workshop with the ISRP to address ISRP concerns. If project sponsor decides to pursue artificial production (Obj 1, work element 3) then implementation is dependent upon favorable step review.


NPCC Draft Funding Recommendations (September 15, 2006) [Full NPCC Council Recs]

FY 2007 Budget
$512,871
FY 2008 Budget
$512,871
FY 2009 Budget
$512,871
Total NPCC Rec
$1,538,613
FY 2007 MSRT Rec
$ 0
FY 2008 MSRT Rec
$ 0
FY 2009 MSRT Rec
$ 0
Total MSRT Rec
$ 0
Budget Category:ProvinceExpense
Comments:
NPCC Staff Comments: ISRP fund in part: funding continues but part of funding contingent on outcome of a workshop with the ISRP to address ISRP concerns. Artificial production aspects of project need to have favorable step review

Local or MSRT Comments: Withdrew hatchery upgrades. Reduced budget by $126,053 FY07, $207,893 FY08, $126,053 FY09.


Independent Scientific Review Panel Final Review (August 31, 2006) [Download full document]

Recommendation: Fundable in part
NPCC Comments: The ISRP reviewed the revised proposal, noting the withdrawal of the deepwater spawning components. The reviewers acknowledge the historical and cultural significance that kokanee hold for the project sponsors, and the reviewers support the overall thrust of the project in "preserving the natural origin kokanee stocks in Colville Tribal reservation streams (San Poil and Nespelem rivers) and other tributaries capable of supporting natural origin kokanee." Overall, project results of this decade-long endeavor have generally been thin or (as in the case of strobe lights to reduce entrainment) negative, reflecting the many difficulties faced in managing kokanee in the Lake Roosevelt system.

Portions of the proposed workplan involve inventory or improvement of passage for natural origin kokanee and are found to be Fundable. Those efforts appear in the revised proposal as both of the two work elements (planning and inventory of natural origin kokanee) under Biological Objective 1, and Work Elements 1 and 2 under Biological Objective 3. The latter two work elements would determine the feasibility of providing spawner access to lower Barnaby Creek and then design and construct access structure if feasible.

Reviewers maintain that there is no demonstrated scientific basis for an endorsement of the other portions of the actions proposed, namely Biological Objective 2, to supplement current kokanee stocks using artificial production, and Work Element 3 under Biological Objective 3, to conduct a feasibility study of spawning channels in the Nespelem and San Poil rivers. The latter work element is not accompanied by any discussion or supporting information and thus is Not Fundable; the "supplementation" objective is likewise viewed as Not Fundable, as discussed below.

The sponsors use the term supplementation but propose to conduct the operation in a way which does not truly embody the concept, and which is basically harvest augmentation. They state that “the fundamental assumption behind the theory of supplementation is that hatchery fish returning to the spawning grounds are ‘reproductively similar’ to naturally produced fish.” The sponsors go on to say (a) they will use (instead of stream-specific fish) “an in-basin stock that is currently being reared as part of the Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Hatchery Program” and (b) the intent is to “artificially produce sufficient salmonids to supplement consistent harvest . . .” As developed elsewhere in the Columbia Basin, supplementation is proposed to increase the naturally reproducing population of a specific stream to a level at which it will sustain itself. The idea is to use the specific stream’s adults as parents for hatchery production of young, and then release those young into the same stream with the objective that some will return there to spawn and increase that stream’s natural production. Regardless of what it is called, it appears that hatchery-reared kokanee are already being released in Big Sheep Creek and perhaps other stream sites. If so, that should be reported.

The ISRP does not support funding the release of hatchery-reared kokanee in Big Sheep Creek, West Fork San Poil, and Gold Fork as proposed for FY 07-09. The proposal does not adequately justify the action and does not provide enough detail for reviewers' consideration. Questions arise, such as how many wild kokanee remain in these streams? What is historic and current harvest? Why did the wild kokanee run decline? Can the causative factors be rectified? Could enough hatchery-produced kokanee be expected to survive the predator bottleneck where the streams enter the reservoir? The discussion of the barrier problem on Barnaby Creek showed that if conditions are "right" kokanee will come. The barrier is effective in most years but passable with high flows such as occurred in 1997 when 800 to 1000 fish escaped to the stream. In light of these results, any future consideration of any supplementation/harvest augmentation should include a focused discussion of the causes for what was concluded to be low production in these streams and an M&E plan that has measurable goals, with objectives and strategies that are clearly linked to the goals.


Independent Scientific Review Panel Preliminary Review (June 2, 2006) [Download full document]

Recommendation: Not fundable
NPCC Comments: The overarching goal of this proposal is "to develop deep water spawning in Lake Roosevelt at or below the normal minimum drawdown level during the critical period from egg deposition to fry emergence." Because the proposed work is a significant departure from that in the past, it would seem more appropriate to view it as a new project. In any case, reviewers (while sharing an appreciation of the extent to which the environment has changed in the last six decades) concluded that the proposed work does not address the biological realities of the Lake Roosevelt system and has little potential to benefit kokanee. It seems implied in the proposal that Lake Roosevelt is considered an ecosystem that is functioning reasonably well - or would be if the kokanee population was restored to past abundance. However, in view of the present unnatural character of the water body (largely its water level fluctuations) and haphazard mix of species, particularly introduced piscivores, it is more realistic to speak of Lake Roosevelt as a dysfunctional water body in terms of its biota or even as a malfunctioning ecosystem.

The proposal briefly summarizes the problem, and it is more thoroughly discussed in proposal 199404300 (Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation) and the Guidance Document. The overall problem seems to be a desire to establish a kokanee fishery that is not compatible with the physical and biological realities of the ecosystem. Kokanee salmon abundance is less than desired and less than it once was, but there is no clear explanation for this observation. The assumption in this proposal is that spawning habitat is limiting kokanee abundance, but the authors have not supported that belief. Reviewers suggest that kokanee may be so constrained by predation and entrainment loss that even if inducing deepwater spawning were to be successful those recruits would not survive to maturity.

There is nothing in this proposal to suggest positive results might be forthcoming. No evidence is given that increasing recruitment by deepwater spawning (should it be induced) would negate the effects of predation, entrainment, etc. It is unclear how kokanee would be forced to use deepwater spawning habitat if it is located by project staff and abandon any shallow shoreline habitat that is presumably used at present. Furthermore, reviewers suggest that if deepwater spawning habitat exists, some fish are likely already using it.

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