BPA Fish and Wildlife FY 1997 Proposal

Section 1. Administrative
Section 2. Narrative
Section 3. Budget

see CBFWA and BPA funding recommendations

Section 1. Administrative

Title of project
Salmon Smolt Survival During Linear Kinetic Power Generation

BPA project number   5500900

Business name of agency, institution or organization requesting funding
Schneider Engine Company

Sponsor type   TX-Consultant

Proposal contact person or principal investigator

 NameDaniel J. Schneider
 Mailing addressSchneider Engine Company:
331 W. FM 407
Justin, TX 76247

BPA technical contact   , EWI

Biological opinion ID   

NWPPC Program number   13.1F

Short description
Improve salmon restoration AND generate electricity using linear traveling hydrofoils that eliminate turbine-associated salmon smolt mortality during full kinetic hydraulic power generation at existent low-head sites (weirs, diversion dams, irrigation canal drops). This will assist mainstem dams through offset power generation losses at times of flow bypass needed to accommodate smolt runs.

Project start year   1997    End year   1998

Start of operation and/or maintenance   0

Project development phase   

Section 2. Narrative

Related projects

Project history

Biological results achieved

Annual reports and technical papers

Management implications

Specific measureable objectives
Average juvenile salmon survival rate in excess of 99% at each passage through a full scale linear dynamic hydropower generator operating at full power.

Testable hypothesis
Juvenile salmon smolts will pass through full scale linear dynamic hydropower generators (Schneider HydroEngines) operating at full power with less than 1% direct and indirect mortality.

Underlying assumptions or critical constraints
The critical issue is to demonstrate safe juvenile salmon hydropower generator passage by elimination of the five causes for turbine related morbidity and mortality can help restore salmon while generating low cost hydropower:

Cause ~ Morbidity/Mortality: Solution: (by means of linear, non rotating technology)
1. High speed rotor blades/tips ~ trauma Foils must travel at uniform, low velocity within visual
response and motor ability for fish to avoid collision
2. Low pressure out-gassing ~ bends, suffocation Uniform pressure distribution above out-gassing levels
3. Cavitation ~ deadly explosion / vaporization Uniform pressure distribution above cavitation levels
4. Stream flow shear forces ~ trauma Steady, low velocity, low turbulent flow
5. Spin centrifugation ~ impedes predator escape Linear, low turbulent flow; no cyclonic, rapidly spiraling flow

This project will test the capacity of linear traveling lifting foil technology for full hydropower operation while assuring juvenile salmon passage survival rates necessary for restoration of salmon populations:

Survival Determinant: Test / Measurement:
1. 5 to 6 fps foil velocity Visualize fish behavior, assess motor response
2. No out-gassing of nitrogen or oxygen Measure pressure field; observe for oxygen / nitrogen gasification
3. No cavitation Measure pressure field; observe for cavitation
4. No traumatizing shear forces Measure velocity distributions, observe and count shear effects
5. No spin effects on balance mechanism Observe stability of swim path; fish balance stability

NORTHWEST IMPLICATION: Success can help restore salmon by generating electricity in many non-mainstem Colombia/Snake River ultra-low-head sites which are not now producing power. Adding this new regional hydropower would offset power generation cuts at mainstem dams at times when smolt are running.

The use of linear dynamic lifting foils provides very fish friendly linear, stable, low velocity, low turbulent water flow. Neither degassing or cavitation is expected to occur. This will be confirmed by observation, and if there is variance from these expectations, such variance will be studied in detail and quantified. This stable hydrodynamic environment should provide conditions for juvenile salmon in which survival approaches 100%.

1. The Schneider HydroEngine uses linear dynamic technology long proven first as sails, and then as the central lifting mechanism of the aviation industry as wings on airplanes. Schneider originally conceived the environmental benefits of fixed location linear foil use in the 1960's, logically starting with a focus on the physics of hydrodynamic design for linear lifting hydropower devices. These early efforts were given support by the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), Office of Energy Related Inventions, and later, the Department of Energy. Early designs were tested at the University of California, Davis, Hydraulic Laboratory, with good efficiency of 80% at heads as low as 1.25 feet (see Attachment #5). Persistent effort has successfully spawned improvement of the design such that current engineering anticipates 50,000 hours between major overhaul (BMO) in operating dam settings with at least 50 years for dam life expectancy. This learning curve is not unlike that of the Diesel engine, aviation technology, or any other innovative development, including conventional hydroturbines. The design effort has evolved the NatEl System which is an integration of multiple HydroBeavers in parallel at individual low head dams within a series of dams of varying head.

2. This project will test the capacity for a hydropower technology that uses linear traveling lifting foils -- as in the Schneider HydroEngine and HydroBeaver -- to operate at full power while significantly reducing or avoiding the FIVE causes for juvenile salmon survival reduction that are associated with turbines -- Four direct causes, which account for about half the turbine associated killing of fish in passage: 1) trauma, 2) "bends", 3) cavitation, and 4) shear; and a significant bundle of "indirect" causes which probably double the turbine related mortality: "stress", hypoxia and disorientation which incapacitates the smolt's effective escape from predators in the tailrace. Schneider argues that these are "direct" causes, especially hypoxia (due to oxygen out-gassing in turbine) and disorientation stress factors, since reduced dissolved oxygen is a direct result of degassing by the turbine, and disorientation results from being centrifuged and spun around in the high velocity rotating stream, especially between the wicket gates and the rotor.

3. Tests will be performed in a controlled field setting (irrigation canal from which all natural juvenile salmon have already been screened) to assure accuracy of morbidity and mortality data and to assure reproducible results. The irrigation canal environment will allow valid testing of the hypothesis at a reasonable cost using realistic experimental and control juvenile salomonid populations.

4. Tests will focus on survival of juvenile salmon in passage downstream through linear dynamic hydropower technology during full power generation; adult passage data relevant to this technology will be the subject of later full scale tests.

5. Juveniles of non-threatened salmon species will be the experimental fish in passage through a suitably sized Schneider HydroEngine to simulate natural juvenile salmon smolt passage through full scale HydroEngines given the following constraints:
a) Tests to be accomplished at a salmon free irrigation canal drop site
b) Species specific experimental juvenile salmon/other species to be introduced upstream of the HydroBeaver,observed during passage through HydroEngine, and 100% of fish collected for analysis downstream of the HydroBeaver by means of a fish retaining screen and de-watering of the tailrace.
c) Maximum head is to be 10 feet; empirically based on observed beaver dam head dimensions
d) Flow volume at the site is to be at least 500 cfs if head is 10 feet; lower volumes if head is lower
e) Smallest size Schneider Hydroengine for natural runs of juvenile salmon will have a throat area of about 45.5 sq. ft and foil spacing of 12 inches with chord length of 13.9 inches

6. Success will
a) lead to power generation at many existent ultra-low-head sites that can contribute large quantities of low-cost non-polluting hydropower to offset reduction in power generation by main stem dams at times of juvenile salmon runs.
b) can eventually lead to active restoration or rehabilitation of high head ravaged aquatic-riparian ecosystems.
c) lead to increased total hydropower delivered to utility net to preserve hydropower customer base and reduce atmospheric pollution by gas turbines.

7. The knowledge gained through this salmon survival experiment on the fish friendly Schneider HydroEngine will become essential to all major future Northwest regional power planning management decisions. This knowledge can affect decisions about hundreds of millions of mitigation dollars to restore salmon in the rivers of the Northwest; and can demonstrate how to generate low-cost hydropower AND sustain salmon -- true sustainable hydropower.

Operations anticipated within fiscal year 1997: The facility for conducting tests on juvenile salmon survival using linear traveling lifting foils (attachment #1) -- as in the Schneider HydroEngine and HydroBeaver¹ (attachment #2) -- will be constructed and placed into operation at an irrigation canal site. It is anticipated that the site will be located on the Yakama Indian Nation, Toppenish, Washington. The irrigation season commences in late March and ends in October of each calendar year. It is anticipated that experiments on juvenile salmon survival will commence in the late summer or early autumn of 1997.

¹HydroEngine and HydroBeaver are proprietary, registered trade names belonging to Schneider Engine Company. The underlying technology is patented worldwide.

Operations anticipated within the first half of fiscal year 1998: This experiment will provide essential new knowledge needed to help restore salmon in the Northwest. The data on juvenile salmon survival during full power generation will allow projection of:
7.1) alternative hydropower methods and synergistic schemes to help meet regional power needs;
7.2) realistic time schedules to restore salmon populations through well managed hydropower generation options;
7.3) options for incorporation of linear dynamic hydropower generation technologies into existent turbine powered dam operations (i.e. within spillways; hydropower plant substitution within draw down schemes; replacement or retrofit of old hydropower dams, etc.);
7.4) restoration / rehabilitation of watershed ecosystems through use of ultra-low-head power dams that mimic beaver dams; and,
7.5) realistic sustainable hydropower development activity and break-even strategies with reasonable busbar costs stabilization in application of linear dynamic hydropower generation to a variety of the above development options.

In more detail, use of this gained knowledge should spawn the above highly likely sustainable hydropower planning activities, tools, processes and models, such as:

7.1) Alternative hydropower methods and synergistic schemes that will help meet regional power needs.
Define strategies for using HydroBeavers to generate electricity in many non-mainstem Colombia/Snake River ultra-low-head sites (irrigation canal drops, weirs, diversion dams, etc.), which are not now producing power, to collectively generate significant quantities of hydropower needed by BPA power customers and allow reduction of operation of turbines on the main-stem dams at times when juvenile salmon are running. Definition of the amount of power that could be generated by this means, correlation of power generation to downstream salmon runs, power transmission infrastructure factors, incentives and disincentives for development, and distribution of generated power would warrant clarification given the opportunity for development of substantial amounts of new power.

7.2) Realistic time schedules for restoration of salmon populations through managed sustainable hydropower generation options.
New salmon survival data vis-a-vis full power generation will allow statistically defensible projections to restore salmon in Northwestern rivers. Given that hydropower is of paramount regional economic importance, salmon can only be restored when correlation to sustainable methods for management of hydropower operations is valid.

7.3) Options for incorporation of linear dynamic hydropower generation technologies into existent turbine powered dam operations (i.e. within spillways; hydropower plant substitution within draw down schemes; replacement or retrofit of old hydropower dams, etc.).
New data about linear dynamic power generation technology will allow design application to a variety of low head hydropower development options. For example:

a) Within spillways:
Smolt sparing turbine bypass spillways dissapate large amounts kinetic energy. For each 15,000 cfs passing through 10 feet of head, this spillway water could generate slightly more than 10 megawatts of power. Obviously, HydroBeavers placed in such large flow environments would be considerably larger than the engine to be used in this experiment. But if safe passage is demonstrated with the B55 used in this experiment, it is important to note that scale-up in size will improve the smolt survival rate because in larger engines the chord length and the spacing of hydrofoils will increase, while the water:foil velocity ratio and low turbulent, steady flow features will remain the same as for the experimental engine. As depicted in Attachment #2, the HydroEngine hydrofoil spacing could be as much as three to five feet with chord length as much as four to six feet with proportional increases in guidevane spacing and chord length, and hydrofoil/guidevane gap clearances.

b) Within draw down schemes:
Draw down schemes at existent hydropower dams in effect remove those dams from power production. In draw down instances, hydropower production by means of HydroBeaver dams in series could reinstate the power production that was lost by draw down.

c) Replacement or retrofit of old hydropower dams:
Replacement of old dams may be accomplished in two ways. The first is virtual replacement of the power using HydroBeavers to generate electricity in many non-mainstem Colombia/Snake River ultra-low-head sites (irrigation canal drops, weirs, diversion dams, etc.), which are not now producing power. These off site plants would represent an equivalent amount of power production were the old dam to remain in operation. The second method would replace the power of the old dam by means of a series of HydroBeaver dams (NatEl System) that would replace the site specific power production of the old dam (see Attachment #3).

7.4) Restoration / rehabilitation of watershed ecosystems through use of ultra-low-head power dams that mimic beaver dams.
The National Research Council in Upstream - Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest points to the importance of habitat restorative management actions based on existing watershed conditions and desired levels of improvement for optimization of salmon recovery. The NatEl System offers management options for a combination of aquatic-riparian conditions that would be classified as "Active Managed Restoration" or "Rehabilitation" according to the National Council criteria for Habitat Management Options. Employed as active restorative or rehabilitation technology, the NatEl system would exert similar restorative impacts on the aquatic-riparian domain as would natural beaver dams. Such features of the riparian ecosystem as vegetative growth, debris and carbon cycle balance, species diversity, aquifer recharge, insiltattion and flood control, and meadow succession would have comparable characteristics to natural beaver dams. To the extent that food supply (aspens, willow, etc.) were present and facilitated, beavers would be expected to occupy these surrogate beaver dams. (see Attachment #4)

7.5) Realistic sustainable hydropower development activity and break-even strategies with reasonable busbar costs stabilization in application of linear dynamic hydropower generation to a variety of the above development options. Refined knowledge about HydroBeaver costs of manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance will be an important product of the experiment. Current projections indicate that it is reasonable to expect the sustainable hydropower plants in items 1), 3) and 4) to eventually generate electricity at base case cost of about $.025/kWh and have IRR potential in excess of 10%.

Sustainable regional economic growth is dependent upon abundant low-cost, non-polluting, reliable sources of energy that accommodate the goal to restore salmon. Through this new knowledge, regional power planning will be better able to project hydropower project planning and development in support of regional economic growth goals.

Operations anticipated within the second half of fiscal year 1998: The HydroBeaver will be placed in full time power production to provide an ongoing contribution to the Northwest regional power planning process. It will demonstrate its capacity to generate meaningful power whenever the irrigation canal is in operation. Added experiments or demonstration of smolt passage can be performed as new questions or decision pressures may dictate.

The ongoing B55 HydroBeaver operation will be useful to demonstrate its closely coupled salmon restoration and power production projections to engineers, biologists, economists, ecologists, utility planners and many other interested persons from their many and varied interests and perspectives. This process will form a very important public education activity for the NPPC, the BPA, the Yakama Nation, the BIA and other involved entities.

At the end of the experiment, all of the biological and hydraulic test equipment shall become the property of the respective participant entities, agencies, or laboratories or as may be designated by the NPPC.

A) Brief experimental design including a description of setting, procedure, equipment, instrumentation and materials -- Salmon Survival Experiment:

1) Setting: Irrigation Canal Drop Bypass Shunt (see attachment #6a and #6b for stylized renditions).

Head: 10 feet (approximate).
Flow rate: >500 cfs (approximate -- dependent on operating head).
Features: - An existent canal with water from which salmon are excluded by appropriate screening;
- The clarity of the water is important to allow visualization of fish behavior in the experiments;
- A 10 foot canal drop will be selected and modified by installing a shunt bypass at the drop;
- The shunt is to be gated at both ends so as to not interfere with irrigation operation;
- The shunt gates can be opened or closed to allow bypass through the HydroBeaver;
- The fish screens at the shunt inlet and outlet will deny entry of stray fish resident in the canal;
- The inlet and outlet screens will contain all of the experiment fish for 100% specimen recovery;
- Controlled and careful shunt de-watering will assure accurate fish morbidity and mortality observation and measurement to achieve reproducible outcome counts; and,
- One B55 HydroBeaver will be installed and, connected to the local utility power grid, would generate approximately 335 kW depending on head and flow rate.

2) Technique:

a) The general experimental procedure will be as follows:

Step 1) The HydroBeaver will be operated at various power levels including full power operation. Power and hydraulic performance will be measured and recorded; water and environmental conditions monitored and recorded;
Step 2) At full power, appropriate samples of experimental fish will be released into the low velocity intake flow (2 fps -- to allow fish to orient themselves without being forcefully or passively "washed" into the engine throat);
Step 3) Release and travel of fish will be viewed and recorded from all sides of the entryway, engine and draft tube
Step 4) When all fish have passed through the engine, the inlet and exit gates will be closed;
Step 5) Passage way will be carefully de-watered and all fish carefully collected in a special depression in the down stream pool, examined and condition classified and recorded;
Step 6) Control samples of the same fish population as the experimental samples will be passed to measure survival rates with engine not in operation (lock-shafted?) (all conditions otherwise the same as steps 2, 3, 4, and 5);
Step 7) Experimental and control runs will be repeated as necessary to establish statistically significant results for:
a) morbidity and mortality causally associated with any one passage; and
b) morbidity and mortality causally associated with multiple passages, both with and without rest periods between passages; and,
Step 8) Repeat tests at heads higher than 10 feet to the extent sufficient funds are available and higher head conditions exist at test site.

b) Technique for evaluation of fish morbidity and mortality:

b.1) The juvenile salmon will be received from the hatchery, and maintained in adequately sized and aerated fish tanks in a stable holding facility for both experimental and control populations. The water at the test site will be analyzed for chemical content, and then aliquots of fish will be exposed to the water at the test site to analyze local water effects on fish behavior. The fish holding tanks will be charged with canal water to acclimate the fish to the temperature and chemistry of the site water.

b.2) Specific fish marking: While in the holding tanks, an aliquot of each test population will be randomly selected for fin marking. The markers will be coded to allow specific identification of each marked fish in its swim path through the HydroBeaver.

b.3) Introduction of juvenile salmon into entry way flow: Experimental and control specimens will be introduced into the HydroBeaver entry way directly from the holding tanks by means of a conduit pipe equipped with an automatic fish counter to record the actual number of fish transferred. The transfer of the fish will be recorded on video as a means for redundant confirmation of fish count. An aliquot of fish will be randomly sorted into a holding tank for post-exposure stress testing in comparison to exposed aliquots of fish.

b.4) Observation and recording of juvenile salmon passage through the HydroBeaver: Movement of the fish through the entryway, engine and draft tube will be recorded by underwater video imaging. The random sample of fish marked for specific identification will be monitored for determination, measurement and interpretation of fish response to visualization of guidevanes and hydrofoils. The video record will be used to interpret the swim path choices that the juveniles make as they approach and pass through the engine. Observation of collisions, trauma or stress from shear or turbulence will be qualified by video observation.

b.5) Determination, observation and recording of exposure of juvenile salmon to stress: The capacity of smolt to cope with predators is perhaps the best indicator of stress dysfunction. However, the confined dimensions of the experiment probably will preclude the use of this measure of stress dysfunction. To assess the presence of hypoxia as a stressor that might be associated with the lift dynamics of the hydrofoils, dissolved oxygen will be measured in water samples entering the HydroBeaver and leaving the HydroBeaver.

b.6) De-watering and collection of juvenile salmon after passage through the HydroBeaver: As the HydroBeaver is de-watered after each run, the salmon specimens will be collected in a tank fitted into a depression located at the bottom of the tailrace. This holding tank will be removable to allow rapid and gentle transfer of the experimental and control fish at the end of each run directly back to the holding laboratory in the adjoining laboratory building. An automatic fish counter will record the number of fish transferred from the recapture tank to the holding tank. The count will be recorded on video.

b.7) Determination of injury and delayed effects of stress: During transfer of the fish to the post exposure holding tank the rate of transfer will be controlled such that each fish can be video-imaged and be observed for de-scaling, bruises, lacerations, erratic swim behavior, listlessness, hyperexcitment or any other evidence of dysfunction. Every fish with evidence of dysfunction will be sorted into a separate holding tank for at least 24 hour observation. During the 24 hours, the fish will be examined hourly for the first six hours, then every 4 hours for 3 observations and a final examination at 24 hours. Progress in recovery or deterioration will be noted. These fish will be evaluated for being prone to predation in regular passage.

b.8) Pre- and post-stress testing: the aliquot of unexposed fish will be compared to a random aliquot of post-exposed fish using multi parameter monitoring and swim pattern analysis to determine physiological and behavioral effects of stress exposure during passage through the HydroBeaver.

b.9) Holding of juvenile salmon between runs: All fish that were not injured or had not shown signs of impaired function will be considered likely survivors from predation and thereby candidates for downstream passage through a subsequent power house. These fish will be held for 24 hours in a stable holding tank. After a 24 hour hold, they will be considered eligible for a subsequent passage through the HydroBeaver to assess effects of multiple passages, including swim behavior and response to visualization of the HydroEngine.

c) Technique for evaluation of the hydraulic and power performance of the operating HydroBeaver:

c.1) Mechanical losses may be computed by determining the difference the power needed to drive the de- watered B55 with an electric motor and the total power output.

c.2) Total water flow will be measured by means of a weir located between the downstream screen and the exit gate (or alternatively downstream of the exit gate).

c.3) Upstream and downstream hydraulic heads of the HydroBeaver will be measured to compute and evaluate the hydraulic grade line along the test system.

c.4) Velocity distributions at various points upstream and downstream will be measured to compute and evaluate the kinetic energy of the flowing water through the system

c.5) Dye will be injected at various points on the leading and trailing edges of guide vanes and by using a dye wand upstream of the HydroEngine to visualize and analyze stream flow patterns through the test system.

c.6) Power generated by the B55 will be measured as it is delivered into the utility net.

3) Equipment and Instrumentation Specific to the Fish Survival Experiments:

a) Transporting and holding of juvenile salmon will be accomplished using facilities of the Tribal Fishery. Adequate holding facilities at the test site will include temporary holding tanks sufficient for two or three days of experiments.

b) Piping, pumps and related equipment to transfer fish from the holding facility to the entry way without stress or injury; and for de-watering and transfer of fish back to the holding facility without injury or stress after each run.

c) Means for counting fish including video and SONAR.

d) Visualization of the juvenile salmon will be accomplished by ample use of Plexiglas paneling in the sides of the entry way, HydroEngine and draft tube.

e) Images will be obtained using video and still cameras, including underwater cameras

f) Fish screens at the inlet and outlet will be sized and designed to pass water at about 1 fps

A portable data logger with electronic sensors
g) ...will be used to measure the kinetic energy of the flowing water at selected points in the HydroEngine and in throughout the HydroBeaver;

h) will be used to measure head pressures upstream and downstream of the HydroEngine (stilling wells and point gauges will be installed in the forebay and the discharge basins to measure water levels and to calculate head across the unit. The point gauges will be surveyed so they are referenced to the same elevation.);

i) ...will measure total water flow at the outlet weir; and,

j) ...will measure power draw (for mechanical loss tests) and power generated.

k) Switch gear will provide interconnect with the utility net capable of reverse flow prevention in the event of HydroEngine shutdown, and shunt to ballast in the event of utility outage.

4) Materials and general site equipment:

a) Inlet, outlet and canal flow gates with controls
b) One complete B55 HydroBeaver, including penstock, HydroEngine, draft tube, controls, generator and switch gear suited for 10 feet of head operation with a 100% safety factor.
c) Laboratory and control building
d) Various controls for gates and safety measures
e) Civil works / structures

B) Statistical analysis (Team biologist and hydraulics engineers to make final definitions in ongoing study)

Numeric (mean, median, variance) and graphic (histogram and scatter diagram) descriptions of data together with two-way factorial analysis and application of the Chi-square statistic will be employed to analyze the survival experience of statistically significant sized and comparable experimental and control groups of juvenile salmon.

In addition to determination of gross morbidity and mortality rates, some of the questions to be answered through this analysis include:
a) Are juvenile salmon subject to collisions with linear traveling (non-traveling control) hydrofoils?

1) direct impact visualization / photographic record
2) evidence of impacts observed after passage (de-scaling, disabled swimming, trauma)
3) bruised or mutilated dead fish

b) Are juvenile salmon subjects exposed to nitrogen and/or oxygen out-gassing - bends? - suffocation? - stress? method:
1) visualization of absence/presence of out-gassing in fluid stream lines
2) analysis of dissolved gas levels in tailrace water
3) observe for erratic swimming after passage through engine
4) dead fish without evidence of bruising or mutilation

c) Are the juvenile salmon subjects exposed to cavitation? method:
1) visualization of cavitation in fluid stream lines
2) dead fish mutilated by cavitation

d) Are the juvenile salmon subjects exposed to hydraulic or mechanical shear forces? method:
1) stream line characterization by stream flow dye injection
2) observation of fish swim paths through the engine
3) disablement of fish within hydraulically defined shear zones

e) Are the juvenile salmon subjects exposed to spiraling or spinning swim paths? method:
1) stream line characterization by stream flow dye injection
2) observation of fish within swim paths through the engine
3) disorientation in tailrace pool indicative of balance instability

Many other questions will be addressed in the process of measuring morbidity and mortality, such as:
1) What are the motor responses of the juvenile salmon to visualization of the moving foils?
2) Does lighting / darkness in the entry way, engine, draft tube (or combination) affect entry and passage safety?
3) Does guidevane / hydrofoil color, brightness, vibration, etc. influence the safety of chosen swim paths?
4) How effectively might smolt emerging from the HydroEngine recognize, evade, cope with predators? etc.

C) Type and number of fish to be used:

Most test runs will probably be species specific. Spring and fall chinook, sockeye, steelhead juveniles, soho and others as may be specified in the course of the experiment will be chosen according to availability and priority review during the course of the experiment.

Brief schedule of activities
1) Project tasks for 1997

Major Activity 1): Finalize and design irrigation canal site (Completion by end month 3)
a. Finalize site use agreement
b. Finalize experiment designs and plans for salmon survival and HydroBeaver power performance studies
c. Finalize site layout
d. Obtain site modification and use permits
e. Set schedule for site modification / construction

Major Activity 2): Design HydroBeaver and irrigation canal drop (Completion by end month 5)
structure suited to long term testing of smolt survival passage through HydroBeaver
a. Finalize passage way and appurtenances design
b. Finalize instrumentation
c. Finalize civil design
d. Finalize definition of guidevane/hydrofoil clearances vis-a-vis juvenile fish dimensions
e. Finalize B55 HydroEngine design and specifications

Major Activity 3): Construct, install and start-up HydroBeaver; (Completion by end month 10)
(May be delayed by permitting process)
a. Construct civil modifications at canal site
c. Manufacture and shop testing of B55 HydroEngine
d. Deliver new HydroBeaver to irrigation canal test site
e. Install and start-up HydroBeaver
f. Commence juvenile salmon survival and power analysis experiments if irrigation season has not ended.

2) Significant continuations/changes in project activities for 1998

Major Activity 4): Conduct juvenile salmon survival and power (Completion by end month 18)
performance tests (depends on irrigation season)
a. Conduct controlled juvenile salmon survival and B55 performance experiments
b. Initial fish passage and B55 assessment at irrigation canal test site
c. Fish passage and B55 assessment at irrigation canal test site

Major Activity 5): Data analysis, reporting and planning (Completion by end month 24)
a. Juvenile Salmon morbidity and mortality report
b. HydroBeaver power production report
c. Scale-up projections for minimum safe fish passage field size HydroEngine
d. Projection of improved technology; with testing and assessment proposal
e. Strategic projections for salmon restoration and sustainable hydropower development in the Northwest

If additional funds are secured for FY 1998:
a. Commence Phase II at a suitable existent ultra-low-head site
b. Plan significant continuations/changes in project activities for 1999-2001

Biological need
The paramount challenge this project confronts is to reduce salmon juvenile morbidity at hydro facilities on Northwest rivers without losing the capacity to generate low-cost hydroelectric power. Two traditional ways that seek to do this are to use fish screens to keep juveniles out of turbines and to spill or bypass water. These traditional ways restrict power generation at conventional turbines and have marginally acceptable levels of juvenile survival.

The Schneider HydroEngine concept may not yet be as efficient as traditional turbines. What is potentially attractive about the Schneider HydroEngine is its fish friendly design that will allow juvenile salmon to pass through the units unharmed. This would reduce or eliminate the need to screen hydropower facilities and will reduce spill and energy losses.

The Schneider HydroEngine will provide passage conditions for juvenile salmon that are not subjected to direct physical de-scaling or trauma, low-pressures that out-gas oxygen and nitrogen, cavitation, injury from shear forces, or spin induced balance instability and disorientation.

These fish friendly conditions can be met by the use of linear dynamic foils because they:
1) maintain uniform low velocity of foils over entire throat area; such foil velocities to allow visual avoidance of physical contact and to not cause high velocity impacts;
2) establish pressure distribution over foil surfaces uniformly above levels that force out-gassing of dissolved nitrogen and oxygen;
3) establish pressure over foil surfaces uniformly distributed at levels above the vapor pressure of water;
4) provide low velocity, steady, low turbulence water flow through the device with no water flow shear zones;
5) provide flow of steady; low turbulence with no induced rotational moment around the long axis of fish travel to avoid disorientation or balance disturbances that can subject the fish to easy predation in the tailrace.

(From a philosophy of science perspective, the approach proposed is similar to that used by Schneider as Director of Human Factors Design for the US Army Aviation Section of the US Army Transportation Command; and in Sky Lab human factors design at Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation. Mission success is based on simultaneous integration and application of both sound principles of physics and finite physiological (including behavior) principles to the water flow kinetic energy conversion process experienced during hydropower generation.)

Critical uncertainties
There are no major critical uncertainties:
1) Obtaining a site use permit in a timely fashion should be highly likely since canal sites are available that have existent turbine hydropower facilities;
2) The canal site does not contain juvenile salmon since these are screened out at the canal inlet;
3) Juvenile salmon for safe passage experiments will probably be obtained through the Yakama Indian Nation;
4) The hydromechanics of the Schneider HydroEngine technology is already proven.

Summary of expected outcome
1) Morbidity and mortality data associated with:

Morbidity / Mortality MODE: EXPECTED OUTCOME:
a) Traumatic contact with foils Little or no injury from contact: any foil contact is low velocity, low
energy; foils do not have sharp edges or concentration of forces

b) "Bends" syndrome; and No "bends" expected; no oxygen deprivation expected: low pressure
oxygen deprivation distribution uniform over full length of foil with no zones falling to
nitrogen and oxygen out-gassing levels -- yet total low pressure force is
large to exert large total lift force

c) Cavitation No cavitation expected: low pressure distribution uniform over full
length of foil with no zones falling below the vapor pressure of water

d) Shear effects ; Hydraulic Hydraulic shear zones expected to be mild: low turbulent flow; no
violent boundaries between flows of markedly different velocity

Shear effects ; Mechanical Possible mechanical shear: shear between guidevanes and hydrofoils
will be a focus for careful study and experimental manipulation

e) Other factors, such as vertigo No disorientation from spin: linear, low turbulent flow without
rotational moment. Smolt should maintain normal predator response

2) Hydropower performance

HydroEngine efficiency expected to approach 90%. Accommodation for physical shear between guidevanes and hydrofoils (increased space) may result in some loss in efficiency (i.e. efficiency of 85%).

3) Sustainable regional hydropower resource growth and economics

Expected demonstration of salmon survival with low-cost power generation at ultra-low-head sites is in turn expected to open a significant economic opportunity for existent ultra-low-head dam operators such as irrigation districts, diversion dams, barriers or weirs. These operators can become producers of alternative hydropower in direct competition with low-cost gas turbines, but without atmospheric pollution; gas turbine pollution ought to be accountable for carbon dioxide emission -- remember Grinnell Glacier has lost over 40% of its ice mass since 1937 after having been stable for all biologically recorded history. These operators also have very low liability costs since dam failure poses no hazard downstream.

The added hydropower is necessary for continued regional economic growth; and the technology can be the nucleus of an entire new regional industry. The short term cost of this project is offset by potential benefits in restoring salmon and related industry; establishment of a sustainable hydropower industry; and growth of new industry.

4) Rehabilitation and active restoration of upstream habitat.

Dependencies/opportunities for cooperation
Successful project completion is complimentary to regional long range salmon recovery plans, such as plans of the Colombia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, the Colombia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission and the Yakama Indian Nation. The NPPC PROGRAM NUMBER: 13.1F. Promising New Ideas for Improving Salmon Survival states:
"The Council has called for...and other ways to improve passage... The Council is concerned that these new ideas might be lost in the debate over existing measures or allowed to languish. This measure is intended to provide an expedited process to encourage innovative approaches to improving salmon survival, especially in the mainstream."

13.1F.3 goes on to say:
"The Council will review promising ideas on an expedited basis, with input from fishery managers, and determine whether or not development of these ideas should be pursued. Upon Council approval, development should be promptly funded."

Although discussions have not been completed, it is proposed that the Yakama Indian Nation fisheries program and regional biologists together with Schneider Engine Company conduct the fish survival studies. Such participation is consistent with Tribal goals relating to salmon restoration and economic development.

The project will organize a cooperative agreement between the Yakama Indian Nation, the Bureau of Indian Affairs Wapato Irrigation Project and Schneider Engine Company for development of a Schneider HydroEngine juvenile salmon survival test facility on the Wapato Irrigation Project canal.

The project clearly fits within the fish resources goals of the Yakama Indian Nation as set out in the Tribe's 1995 Annual Report. Such Tribal goals as "To restore fish populations to pre-settlement levels, to the degree possible"; "To restore year around Tribal Fisheries...", "To restore extinct fish runs", and "To enhance selected species of fish, and promote "Natural" production in areas that can sustain reproduction" are achievable only through development of fish friendly hydropower technology.

Economic Development Tribal goals, such as "To increase economic return to Yakama Tribal Community from all fishery resources" and the Tribal jobs programs which recognizes that the major limitation to economic self-sufficiency is the "lack of job (employment) opportunities for JOBS Participants on the Reservation" are directly related to successful development of fish friendly hydropower technology. Project success could offer a substantial opportunity for the Tribe to participate in long term development of industry in manufacturing linear dynamic hydropower technology.

The Bureau of Indian Affairs Wapato Irrigation Project is the logical setting for the collaborative project. The irrigation project has several canal sites that would be ideally suited for full scale studies of the fish friendly performance of the Schneider HydroEngine. The Yakama Indian Nation fisheries program and regional biologists will conduct the fish survival studies with Bob Tuck of Eco Northwest assisting in project coordination.

Dependence of the project on the site being granted a permit to generate 335 kW or more at the selected irrigation canal site is minimized by there being a high likelihood that the canal drop to be chosen already has an old hydropower turbine at the site. In as much as the site modification will pose no threat to endangered species, it is not anticipated that this licensing process will be burdensome or restrictive.

The risks associated with the project are two:
1) the remote possibility of proving the physics-based and fish physiology-based hypothesis to be wrong, in which case a proportionately small amount of salmon mitigation money would have been spent -- an amount infinitesimally small compared to overall salmon mitigation expenditures vis-a-vis potential gain.
2) the remote possibility that current advanced engineering will not achieve the 50,000 BMO goal. Just as for any emerging industry (i.e. aviation, the telephone, computers, weaponry, the Diesel engine, etc.), the seeming "fatal flaws" of those early designs have given way to advanced technology that has now become so essential that it is impossible to imagine society without these technologies)

Monitoring activity
The project activities and budget will be controlled by means of a computer based project management program (Microsoft Project Manager). The project funds will be deposited in a non-risk account at PaineWebber, which firm will independently generate a monthly statement for distribution to all designated parties. Cost accounting practices will be overseen and audited by Coopers & Lybrand LLP or equivalent CPA firm.

A monthly meeting of the Principle and Lead Investigators will review all project activities, track progress, analyze results, modify protocols and assess project cost accounts and benefits projections.

A Technical Advisory Committee shall be formed and will conduct at least semi-annual meetings with the PI and LIs to assess progress and anticipated activities. Composition of the Technical Advisory Committee shall be determined through discussions with cooperating entities.

An annual meeting will be held with the project's Sustainable Hydropower Development Steering Committee.

Section 3. Budget

Data shown are the total of expense and capital obligations by fiscal year. Obligations for any given year may not equal actual expenditures or accruals within the year, due to carryover, pre-funding, capitalization and difference between operating year and BPA fiscal year.

Historic costsFY 1996 budget data*Current and future funding needs
(none) New project - no FY96 data available 1997: 3,389,000

* For most projects, Authorized is the amount recommended by CBFWA and the Council. Planned is amount currently allocated. Contracted is the amount obligated to date of printout.

Funding recommendations

CBFWA funding review group   System Policy

Recommendation    Tier 3 - do not fund